Semantic associations of each color were also elicited from subjects. There appeared a great deal of variability in pattern of response, in the number of associations made drawn on internalized or memory associations. At some point this resource became exhausted, then individuals would begin looking around their immediate context in order to find things of the same color. This was a common pattern with almost everyone thus interviewed. A couple of highly nervous children appeared to immediately begin searching their contexts for informational clues to the color, not relying upon memory process very much.
The red color was associated with temples (28.5%), shirts (23.8%), blood and red light (on boats and street stoplight) (19%), house and cars (14.3% each), fire, apple, postboxes, lipstick, paper, flower (9.5%). The average number of associations was 3.12 per person, with a range of 7 and a mode of 3.
Blue is associated with plastic buckets common on the Jetty (38%), motorboats painted blue (33.3%), shirts (23.8%), sky and pen, (19% each); clothes and pants (14.3%); the sea, houses, balls, shoes, bicycles, paint, and bags (9.5%). The average number of associations per person were 3.6 per person with a mode of 2 and a range of 9.
The color gray is associated with shirts, cars, and cement (19% each); houses (14.3%); floors, bamboo, ashes, boats (9.5%). The average number of associations per person is 2.5, while the mode is 2 and the range is 8.
The color orange is associated with oranges ("chiam," usually "Sunkist") (81.8%), shirts (18%), bicycles (9%). The average number of associations per person was 2.05 with a range of 5. It appears that not many things in the Jetty world are orange, and orange are not more common. The color term "orange" is used almost interchangeably with "Sunkist" to refer to oranges.
Pink is associated with clothes (23.8%), chairs, bikes and Chinese cakes ("mee ku") (14.2% each), material, houses, lipstick, and buckets (9.5%). The average number of associations per person was 2.35 with a range of 7 and a mode of 1.
Yellow is associated with umbrellas and shirts (19% each), lights (14%), oranges and house plants (9.5% each). The average number of associations is 2.67 per person, with a range of 7 and a mode of 2.
Purple is associated with clothes (27%), shirts (13.6%), t-shirts, pants, bikes, shoes, purple containers, material and cars (9%). The average number of associations is 2.78 per person with a mode of 2 and a range of 7.
Green is associated with trees and leaves (22.7% each), traffic lights (14.3%), houses, sampans, shirts, shoes, apples, paint, grass, motorcycles, leafy vegetables ("chai") and cars (9%).The average number of associations is 2.36 per person with a range of 6 and a mode of 1.
Violet is associated with paint, shirts, colored pencils, watches and bicycles (8.3% each.) That violet is not a common color and is an inherently ambiguous color for the Jetty people might be reflected in the fact that only 17 of 24 people gave any clear associations with the color and that 6 people said they didn't know any associations (25%). The average number of associations was 2.88 per person, with a range of 7 and a mode of 3.
Brown is associated with chocolate (22.7%) which it is called, with shoes, skin, and houses (18%), with colored pencils, the body, pens, joss sticks, and paint (9%). The average number of associations is 2.88 with a mode of 3 and a range of 7.
Black is associated with hair (52.4%), shirts (28.6%), pants (23.8%)bags and shoes (19%), tires and charcoal (14.3% each), boats, pens, eyes, death, bicycles, and motorcycle seats (9.5% each). The average number of associations is 3.2 per person, with a range of 9 and a mode of 3.
White is associated with shirts (36.4%), with paper (31.8%), house paint (22.7%), houses (18%), pants (13.6%), motorboats, ocean liners, shoes, t-shirts, fans, cars, dresses and boats (9%).The average number of associations per person was 2.95 with a mode of 1 and a range of 7.4. The only similarities between these two patterns are the low frequency of violet in both rank orders. Otherwise the two structures are clearly quite contrastive. In terms of inter-correlations between the sub-samples based on gross frequencies of all the colors , there was a .06 inter-correlation between the pretty and ugly cross-sample matrices, and a .38 inter-correlation between pretty and total pretty/ugly cross-sample matrix and a .94 inter-correlation between ugly and total pretty/ugly cross-sample matrix. 5. Extensive analysis was conducted upon the samples of color pyramid tasks. Correlation and inter-correlation scores for the twelve colors, the fifteen positions and five levels for five sub-samples were run--for men (N=5), women (N=6), girls (N=12), boys (N=14) and the control-reference group (N=21). A number of chi square tests can be run on different levels between groups and pretty and ugly pyramids. For example, purple and black in the first three positions for the girls' pretty and ugly pyramids reveal a chi square of 24.46, significant far above the .001 level of significance. 6. These patterns were independently corroborated by the use of the same colored pens in other basic things tasks of largely non-overlapping samples. 7. It stands to reason that item choice has little to do with the patterning of color choice, since colors were always chosen first. There appears to be little that is obligatory between color association and thing chosen. 8. For impulsivity, the score is distributed between four out of 21 persons, with 3 having a score of two. For insecurity this score is distributed among two persons with a score of 2 each. Scores for anxiety (6 people) and shyness (8 people) are more evenly distributed across the sample, and the anger score is only represented by one person. 9. Both males and females drew a high proportion of characteristics not normally scored, these included bangs, enlargement of the head in relation to the body, clear emphasis of the eyes, reduction of the trunk in relation to the body or the head, shading or detail to the hair, hands behind the back or in the pockets, smiles and open mouths. The males especially showed a special characteristic (50%) of emphasized zigzag lines, either as bangs on the head, or on the body or hands, a difference from the females with a chi square of 1.586, significant above the .25 level.
The heads are frequently enlarged with a great deal of attention, especially to the eyes and the hair, and sometimes the mouth. Typically the body is short in relation to the head and square in shape. Also the arms are short, almost cut off at the end, without much attention to the hands. Clothing is usually sparse and without a lot of pattern or detail, though there are frequent exceptions--this is nothing unusual in a context where many men walk around all day long with nothing more than a pair of shorts or swimming trunks on, and most people dress with just a t-shirt and shorts and slippers.10. The boys' average score per figure for impulsivity was 1.05; the girls .896. The boys' average score per figure for insecurity was .672; the girls .36. The boys' average score per figure for anxiety was .874; the girls' .96. The boys' average score per figure for shyness was .756; the girls' was .78. The boys' average score per figure for anger/aggressiveness was .277; the girls' was .1. 11. Correlations were run on the different combinations between the male and female samples. There is a perfect correlation between these two samples in the frequencies of position and size of the person. There is a .74 correlation in the two samples in the position and size of the house, and the tree shows the greatest difference, with a negative correlation of .034. 12. Thus, for the first small "square" of the symbolic profile (N=37), 14 people drew houses (37.8%); four people drew "baju's" or shirts (10.8%); two people drew glasses; and two drew ribbons. The odds of this occurring by chance are slim to say the least. But the same pattern recurs in all the different symbols on all three of the tasks, with more or less greater range of variation and/or agreement. The second "wave" symbol of the symbolic profile yielded 5 eyes (13.5%), 4 seascapes, 3 rivers, 3 men and 2 faces. The third "dot" yielded 6 faces (15.5%), 4 girls, 3 hills, 2 Mickey Mouse faces, 2 flowers and two "dots." The fourth "diagonal line" yielded 7 triangle/pyramids, 4 hats/caps, 2 boxes, 2 trashcans, and 2 houses. The fifth "circle" yielded 5 flowers, 3 views, 3 coconuts, 2 houses, umbrellas, balls and tables. The sixth and final "curve" yielded 7 faces, 5 apples and 5 cups, 4 eyes, and 2 hand bags and 2 balls.
Similarly for the second drawing task (N=10-17), the first set of six sets of symbols yielded 7 fish and 3 seascapes; the second set yielded 5 irregular shapes, 2 trees, 2 Mickey Mouse faces and 2 other faces; the third set yielded 3 fish, along with a sun, a tree, a "view," a clock, a house and a Mickey Mouse face; the fourth set yielded 7 fish, 3 animal forms, and 2 balls, along with one seascape and 1 flower; the fifth set yielded 7 irregular forms, 4 squares, 1 fish, 1 Mickey Mouse, and 1 playground; the sixth and last set yielded 3 birds, 3 circles, 2 sets of double doors, 2 trees, and 2 irregular shapes.
Again, the same phenomenon occurred for the "Blobs & Circles" task (N > 39) in which the first set of blobs yielded 10 faces, 8 filled spaces, 2 clowns, 2 houses, 2 hats and 2 "x's"; the second set of triangles yielded 7 outlines with inner patterns such as flowers , 6 filled areas, 5 triangles, 4 faces, 3 jungle gyms, 3 kites, 3 flowers, 2 clown faces, and 2 planes; the third set of squares rendered eight 4 or 5 point stars, 5 outlines with inner "x's" or hearts (4), 5 filled triangles, 4 kites, 3 larger squares incorporating the smaller one, 2 Chinese gambling dice, 2 squid, and 2 fish; the final set of circles yielded 9 flowers, 8 suns, 5 filled triangles, four sets of rambutans, four circles, 3 balls and 2 animals.13. This pattern of the intrusion into the picture of the external structure of an increasingly constrained ground as reflected in the increasing abstraction and reduction of the image to simple lines and geometric forms, becomes increased at each successive level. With increasing background constraint, the pattern of the shared symbolic gestalt is lost, with a breaking up of a pattern to yield a broader range of individual items which are simplified in form and rough. At the third level, this process continues even further, as noise is increased with the addition of lines partially connecting the dots. By the fourth level, the images are so constrained by the enclosed spaces and the external structure of the lines, that images are purely projective and imaginary, and the drawn figures lack almost any but the most geometric integration.
The loss of "expressive" control and symbolic representation is reflected in the increasing frequency in which pictures were not completed. All the pictures of the first level were completed (44 of 44). By the second level, 39 of 88 pictures were left uncompleted (44.3%). By the third level, 35 of 88 pictures are left undrawn (39.8%). By the fourth and final level, 50 pictures of 88 are left unfinished (56.2%). It appears then that increasing external constraint and perhaps "ambiguity" leads significantly to the reduction of the capacity to independently construct clear and realistic expressive symbols.14. The three lowest frequency scores for errors of this sample all show that the square tilted to the horizontal with the diagonal rod from the lower left to upper right corner of the frame is the most stable figure, followed by the horizontal rod in relation to the horizontal frame, or the horizontal rod in relation to the diagonal frame. The intermediate frequency error scores (>5 <= 14) all present either the diagonal frame in relation to the vertical rod or the oblique rod in relation to the horizontal frame. 15. These four groupings suggest themselves quite naturally from the data and also suggest that there is a significant difference between the pattern of the low and high intermediate scorers which must be taken into account, and which appear to have to do with the ability to handle the diagonal frame in relation to the oblique or vertical rod, or the horizontal frame with the oblique or diagonal rod. The greatest discriminator of the two sets of scores appears to be the presentation of the diagonal frame with the horizontal or vertical rod, or the horizontal frame with the diagonal rod, or the diagonal frame with the vertical oblique rod, or the diagonal frame with the diagonal rod in either direction. 16. It also appears that certain unclear prototypical forms are frequently confused with similar types of things, and this confusion can delay perception of the true form. In attending to the whole pattern, there is a recurrent erosion of "gestalt" typically by the sixth or seventh card, while the individual is attending more to the correctness of details of the image. Then the image suddenly reappears in more true to form manner by the 8th or 9th picture, often as an "aha" of sudden recognition, especially if there is previous confusion of forms or lack of overall gestalt recognition. 17. This relationship is more directly evident in a task (N = 30) involving a larger set of 21 objects grouped on the basis of their shapes ("roundness" or triangularity or other.) The most frequent objects chosen as most alike are the globe, large and small ball, the picture of Jupiter, the record, the ring and apple and hole. It appears that the perception of circularity and roundness clearly influenced this pattern of choice, which was quite salient considering the number of alternates and the low frequency of most of the alternates. This conclusion is reinforced because "roundness" was the most frequently cited reason for the selection. Roundness also appears to be the most frequently cited reason across many different analogies. This pattern appears independently of the rank order of the items, which would be the record for first, Jupiter second, the radio third and fourth, the pie and the globe for fifth, the radio and cylinder for sixth, the pyramid for seven, the book, pie, human, globe, and cheese wedge for eighth, no ninth and the big ball for final choice.
It is interesting that in this task, the two most different things are all odd sets, but the same general items recur in each of the different sets--radios, atoms, apples and humans, versus humans, globes and atoms. This specificity suggests that the saliency of items on the basis of difference is different from the basis of similarity, and that things selected as most different also tend to be the most frequent things in certain rank positions.18. Locational scoring was done by dividing the space into an even 3 x 3 grid. They were scored for whole and part responses, and an "part whole" response, as well as for minor detail responses. Scoring was also done for overall Form based upon a 1 to 5 rating scale, with five representing the clear and "true" use of form, and 3 about the average vague use of form, and 1 the lack of any clear resemblance between a prototypical object named and the location of the inkblot. Scoring was done for K-type responses in which a sense of 3-dimensional perspective, topographical overview or x-ray type responses seemed to emanate from a special "gestalt" recognized and thus named in the inkblot. "Ch" responses were included for the use of any implied shading in the image. M responses, which were infrequent, was for the implied use of action or animate movement of the image. Content scores included Human, Animal and Plant in whole, part or "object" categories, as well as for the use of space, abstracted "signs" or images, the use of pure shapes, such as "hearts or love" or triangles or squares or circles. 19. What emerges from this patterning is the structured manner which humans may be actually creating and utilizing symbolic content and form to organize information in their environment in meaningful, and predictable ways--the same object may be "visualized" mentally and psychologically in alternate forms--animal, plant, human, object or some in-between way. The manner in which the stimuli is thus construed and understood will then have consequences in the patterning of response by the individual. It is not difficult to imagine how threatening content that might arouse anxiety on some level will evoke a different pattern of response than the perception of an image which may arouse interest or excitement rather than anxiety. 20. Chi square tests between British and American totals, English and Chinese and Chinese and American all reveal significant differences between the .001 level. 21.Across all of the tasks, the British had the highest average number of linkages per task (12.8) compared to an American total average of 8.81, a Chinese Male total average of 8.11 and a Chinese female total average of 5.97 (Chinese total average was 7.04). These averages reflect well the simple fact of different styles of linkages, ranging from the style typical of Chinese females of 1 linkage to every two separate things, to the American tendencies to form longer "chains" of linkages, to the British pattern of forming "star clusters" and larger groupings in which everything is implicitly connected to everything else. Relatively high correlations were obtained with the scores of the different sub-samples were interrelated across the five tasks, with .98 correlation or above within the three cultural groupings, and with the lowest correlations between these groupings occurring between all of sub-samples and the adult Chinese males and adult American males respectively. 22. The ratio of linkages to things linked is a better indicator of the differences of patterning between the samples, the English ratio of .97 approximates the N to N average of total connectedness, and the English female ratio of 1.14 actually exceeds this ratio, indicating a tendency to form closed groupings. The Chinese sit at the opposite end of the continuum, with young Chinese females (.65) and Chinese Females in total (.69) tending toward the N to N X 2 pattern of single connections between two otherwise unconnected objects, whereas the American pattern is clearly similar to the Chinese, except that American males (.68) are more like Chinese Females and American Females (.72) are more like Chinese males (.71). Americans in general tend to form short chains of linkages, while these chains become a little longer with Chinese Males--these chains constituting an intermediate pattern between the English and Chinese female pattern with expected frequencies of N to (N + N/2). 23. Other scores include average number of whole responses (W); number of part whole responses (Wd); number of major detail responses (D); average number of minor detail responses (dd); average number of K-type responses (K);, average number of "c"-type responses (c); average number of movement responses (M); and average number of space responses (S). Comparison of the other scores is shown in the following table 24. There were also important patterns of qualitative or content differences between the samples, for instance in the rank ordering and frequency distributions of colors, in selection of basic things, and the drawings. 25."Psychologically, an organizing process occurs in perception which involves both internalization of objects and externalization of a subject's differentiation in this regard. Thus, adaptive behavior depends upon the quality and direction of a person's response to perceived objects in terms of inner needs and outer realities" (Fuller 1982:85).