Chapter 14

World Unity

by Hugh M. Lewis

 

Before the pacifist revolution can have any hope of achieving success it must begin with a unity of humanity, a unity permeating every most meaningful aspect of our common existence. Such a unity must not be just a superficial political part of people's lives but it must become the dictates of every single human's existence. The revolution is much deeper and more profound in its significance than any so far experienced by any single group of humanity. The human is today a member of a world society. His responsibilities to this much greater unity are stronger than any bonds of nationalism. As a world citizen today the individual must strive consciously to overcome all the differences in language, thought, religion, culture, economics and government which serve to differentiate and isolate him from the experiences of his fellow world citizens. He must sacrifice and subordinate all of his previously held regional, national and cultural prejudices to this effort to achieve a much more valuable view of the world and of himself.

It becomes necessary to question whether or not there really can be common grounds on which differences may be peacefully resolved. It is the objective of this chapter to reveal the efficacy of one alternative framework and foundation for world unity in almost every aspect of every day life. Many other alternatives may be found within the imagination, yet these extend in depth to achieve a theoretical, philosophical, religious, cultural, economic and political unity of a common source by identifying and surmounting certain discrepancies which continue to persist and separate world humanity.

The authoritarian power structures are held to be primarily responsible for the persistence of these social shortcomings and these discrepancies are viewed as other symptoms of militarism, to achieve unity these alternatives must not be forcibly imposed on the minds of humanity, on the collective world mind, by which imposition they will be subsequently rejected and dichotomized as alien and threatening. Unity can only be accomplished by a conscious peaceful coexistence of the alternatives in the lives of humanity, in which their efficacy might be subtly demonstrated and revealed in very personal ways. Once the seeds are sown in an environment of peaceful cooperation, these alternatives will take root, mature and blossom in the lives of all humanity becoming integrated and eventually displacing all past beliefs and practices which will be discarded as obsolete and nonfunctional. Such alternatives have no proposed deadline in which they are to be fully integrated. Implemented today, it can only be a very gradual and subtle process extending over a period of at least several generations. These alternatives are offered as the foundation of a value strategy believed to be applicable to all humanity in the hope of transcending the differences perceived to separate and to isolate a person from his neighbor, to unite in common bonds of all of humanity.

There exists a certain impersonalness of the "system" which isolates the individual and keeps his life void of intimate "spiritual" contact with other people. The system has rectified itself unconsciously in the minds of humanity and has assumed the façade of omnipotent righteousness. The impersonalness and superiority of the "system" over the individual's life has contributed greatly to the dehumanization of the individual, a gradual process of erosion perceived in no detailed way but rather felt deep "inside" in the form of vague hopelessness, despair, random anxiety and in the lack of personal faith and purposefulness. The individual's life is often rift with traumatic changes and emotional fragmentation by which the individual loses sense of personal identity, of self importance and objective living and withdraws very silently into his own subjective womb, an inner world of illusion and disillusionment. Humanity has become inextricably related at both conscious and unconscious level of existence as a component of the "system" that it has created and inherited from one generation to the next. As far as the individual and the whole of humanity have become subordinated as a "part" of the "system" the human has become alienated from his deeper and higher values of living, dehumanized from a higher integrity of being and becoming. Just how healthy is the "normal" human?

To understand the relevancy of this general alienation of humanity to world unity I present a theory of the normative self, a part of the general theory of creativity and universal human nature. The human is endowed with a mind which unlike any other biological species enables him unsurpassed capability for abstraction, intellection, theoretical and logical theorization, creation and intuition, rational volition and decision making, in other words with the potential for the integration of a metaphysical self. There exists for the common human not just a singular physical or perceptual reality for the common human not just a singular physical or perceptual reality. Such a singular reality of existence would solve all of his most pressing problems. He would then be able to operate quite effectively on an instinctual and emotional level, quite as "naturally" as any other species of animal. Every aspect of human existence is involved intimately not with one but with two or more realities, or so it seems, which might be termed the physical and metaphysical realities, or the perceptual and conceptual realities. These are not separate but are rather interdependent and are united within the individual's mind. The human may consciously dichotomize the two instead of naturally striving to integrate the two into a harmony of "truth", striving to deny one or the other of the realities with pathological results because a human can never avoid and divorce himself completely from either side of reality. In striving to integrate the perceptual and the conceptual requires conscious and rational normative decision making, which issues in part from the human's spontaneous creativity, both passively in thought and actively in behavior. It is a natural process of integrating the subjective and the objective, the ends and the means. These two sides of reality and the central relationship the human shares with both create for the individual an essential duality of existence which becomes reflected as dilemma and paradox in every concern of behavior. It becomes the common socially operational nature of all of humanity's philosophical and normative endeavors including military philosophy.

If one accepts the possible efficacy, however limited, of this primary theoretical generalization, reasonably scientific, then the physiological explanation for this duality might possibly be hypothesized as being related to the fact that human brain is divided into two interdependent halves, the left and the right. Each side serves a distinct subset of mental functions, while both operate interdependently of each other. The left side serves the deductive, logical perceptually differentiating and conceptual rationalizing functions, tending to initially dichotomize and differentiate. The right side serves the intuitive, creative, inductive integrating function of uniting the dichotomizations and differentiations in a subsequent harmony or a simplifying paradox of conclusions. This might further be related to the observed duality of personality traits and types, say between the aggressive and the repressive, between the introverted and the extroverted, between the central top dog-under dog inner conflict which afflicts the normative behavior of most humans. It might lead to the value and social connotations such dual interrelationships might have, of dominance and predominance of one trait or character type over its opposite or antithetical trait, of the symbolic and operant male predominance over the female, of supposed male and female character social traits. It might be related to the difference between the authoritarian and the revolutionary personality types. Perhaps this essential duality is necessary for the regeneration and survival of the human, of synthesis from the "dialectical" conflict of opposites, not only psychologically or philosophically, but physiologically involving the "whole" human.

In his life a healthy person needs to consciously and unconsciously in integrate the two sides of reality in order to be happy and successful. Healthy life is one of continual growth. The normative decision making process leads to normative growth and self educational development of the individual. This integration process is a continuous one. The pathological person is one whose growth has been stemmed at some point, becoming fixated and regressive instead of progressive. He is one who is unable to successfully integrate the two sides of reality, due to too fast or too slow change of the external reality or to isolation and fragmentation of the internal metaphysical reality. The pathologically unhealthy human perceives an ever widening gap between the two realities, losing his sense of self, as a whole entity or integrity, becoming a person whom the death forces of fear, regression, substitution, self limitation and destructiveness in both internalized and externalized forms predominate over the life forces of courage, love, trust, integration, independence, growth and progression, being and becoming, freedom, independence, self discipline and creative expression. The healthy person is one of mature integrative growth of the metaphysical and physical self. The pathological person is one of immaturity, metaphysical and physical alienation, and subsequent regression, of which various forms of neurosis, psychosis and physical psycho-somatic dysfunction may be related as symptoms.

The determining factor of a natural ideal is not necessarily a relativistic condition of emotional well being but is rather a universally applicable degree of natural, individuated health. There exists an interdependent pyramidal hierarchy of human needs the satiation of which determine the health of the human personality matrix. Continual satiation is a prerequisite for continual growth. At the base of this hierarchy are all of the biological needs and the relative state of biological physical heath and well being, including uninhibited physical maturation, nutrition, exercise and sleep by which all biological requirements of existence are adequately satiated. At the next level are the libidinous-instinctual needs and the corresponding degree of emotional health, in which appetites, angers, love and sexual desires and otherwise, security and stability are expressed and sated in appropriate measure. The next higher level are the cognitive needs of human perception and conception, of intellection involving the satiation of fears and curiosity, of perceptual sensing and conceptual rationalizing. These needs form the conscious levels of the pyramidal hierarchy, involving experiential, empirical knowledge and abstracted, generalized and communicable knowledge. The final apex of this pyramidal hierarchy of needs and satiations is the purely human level of normative needs and normative health of rational integrating, decision making, and creative expression. This is the level at which the metaphysical self grows and becomes integrated with the physical self as a "whole" human being. This model of a pyramidal hierarchy of human needs and growth may not be the most accurate one for the description of the personality matrix. The biological needs sated, the emotional-sexual needs, from which many social characterizations derive power of influence, seem in conflict with the so called "higher" perceptual and purely "conceptual" needs of intellection by the individual. It may indeed be the eternal conflict between these two sets of needs, social and personal, which is the central dilemma of human existence. Above the biological needs, the higher forms of needs can be foregone without the dire consequences of death, but without the satiation of which the human cannot hope to be completely whole, healthy, natural and happy in a very real sense. The resolution of the dilemma formed by the conflict between needs may give rise to the normative, creative, decision making needs. Insufficient resolution or satiation of these lower needs may give rise to the pathologization of normative behavior. The problems of normative needs, sexual reproduction, social recognition, social characterization, and ultimately proper social organization are very closely interrelated and in context to the human personality matrix forms an inseparable "whole".

Normative decision making is the highest need of expression of humanity's as yet mostly unconscious powers, forming the basis of normative judgment, experiential wisdom and knowledge, of philosophical truth and of strategic rationality as opposed to irrational and pathologized life styles and social behaviors. This level involves the satiation and subsequent growth of an individual's decision making capabilities, of his essential creativity. Normative needs falls into two general groups, the lower individual decision making needs and the higher more general social decision making needs arising from the fact that the human is a social animal and must make collective decisions. This forms part of a complex interrelationship of the individual to society, in which the individual is continuously faced with either "selfless" conformity or "selfish" independence. The interrelationship is a cyclical one of mutual regenerative integration or of degenerative disintegration, giving rise to construction or destruction, progression or regression. It is a cycle which when healthy initiates with the lower social base of cognitive satiation from which the individual inherits his civilizing commonwealth, enabling individuated normative integration, and then manifestation in the ultimate form of communicable social expression by which the process returns and complements the initial civilizing commonwealth of humanity. When pathologized this process might well be reversed and inverted into an authoritarian power structure on which conformity instead of individuality is superimposed on the human.

Before an higher level of growth can be attained in this pyramidal hierarchy of needs the more fundamental needs must first have been adequately satiated (except when sublimation, compensation, rationalization, etc. affect the energies arising from the whole "natural" aggression as a part of a total and innate resource pool of energy in the individual, requiring the bypassing of some needs and the channeling into other appropriate levels of self satiation). A pathological condition of no growth is one in which the more fundamental needs have not been adequately satiated. A pathological development can initiate at the highest level of normative needs and infect all the levels of need satiation and of health, in a pattern of progressive neurosis, psychosis, character disorders and psycho and socio pathologies and affect even the individual's physical well being. A pathologized person whose natural maturation has been stemmed is a neurotic cognitive and normative development is deficiency and fear motivated, giving rise to attempts to alter and control the environment in order to satiate the needs, eventuating in destructiveness and overt domination. Projecting his own inadequacies into the environment as a defense, the pathologized person feels threatened by his environment…alienation, hate, and destructiveness are the products of non-growth of normative decision making capabilities. Neurosis may be the only available solution, the best possible self defense under the given conditions, for the frustrated individual. For the neurotic it is the most healthy solution possible. The disintegration process may not need to develop beyond the point of subtle neurosis, adequately overcoming any sense of frustration. All of humanity to some minuscule extent or at some time or another, suffers neurotic regression. Indeed to be neurotic is "normal" in the authoritarian power structures inflicting most societies.

A healthy person satisfies his emotional needs, overcomes his fear with courage, seeks to understand and become independent with his social environment and in the final analysis is a person motivated by love and has attained an integrated metaphysical self. The golden mean is the achieving integration of the physical and metaphysical sides of reality. The human being is a social animal. Part of healthy self actualization involves the love of others. Pathological development results in alienated antisocial behavior patterns which in various forms become institutionalized within the modern social system. Healthy union in social interrelationships is the knowledge gained by the path of love. Pathological interrelationships involve feat and mistrust, knowledge of others gained not by love but by distortion and manipulation.

In the socialization process of the infant the natural desires are frustrated by fears in a dehumanizing process in which the socialized artificial authoritarian superego is instilled in the individual as a means of control to insure submission, conformity and obedience to the cultural system. The authoritarian power structure dictates that men in power have the right to restrict the normative and other behavior of others. It dictates obedience instead of autonomy, sameness instead of equality, conformity rather than individuality. The authoritarian power structures are multifaceted throughout all occurring social systems. It results in a pathological development of people's normative behavior, a gradual process of dehumanization, alienation, self frustration and pathologization and is reflected in various pathological social expressions which are the symptoms of a diseased authoritarian power structure: drug abuse, crime, sexual perversion, prejudice, ignorance, mindless conformity, religious and political fanaticism, terrorism and militarism. The various social structures arising around these various vices, differentiated symptoms of the same source of affliction becomes institutionalized, contributing to the further dehumanization and continued pathologization of humanity. In patterning the behavior of the constituents the authoritarian power structure reinforces the adaptability of certain mutually symbiotic personality characteristics. It has over extensively relied on the predominance of the left half of the brain function of cognitive analytical capabilities, the predominance of the aggressive personality, of male traits. Societies have always been the domain of the male and have always had a preponderant tendency towards war, militarism and the frontal assault. The majority of humanity, if left alone, would probably be naturally well balanced and very pacific.

 

Observing how the pathologization of the self and the formulation of authoritarian power structures might mitigate against the conceptual foundations of world unity I have offered the theory of the normative metaphysical self as an alternative starting point in the construction of such foundations. It is necessary to ask oneself how healthy is the normal "statistical" average of humanity. This leads to a consideration of perhaps other pathological affects in inhibiting and channeling that which falls under the category of science, especially as it attempts to deal with the single most complex entity so far known to man, the human mind and personality. Psychology by the pursuit scientific methodology has usurped the relationship which religion and personalized faith in human purpose had served in people's lives by negativistic dichotomization between the subjective and the objective realities, and it has offered nothing rational to replace that upon which humanity had been dependent, a common ground for a common faith. I offer as a second alternative prerequisite to comprehensive conceptual foundations of world unity the model of Humanistic Science; an integration of objective scientific methodology and the subjective aspects of human existence. Relying exclusively on hard perceptual data and the analytical tolls of mathematics and logic, scientific thought needs to become integrated to some as yet indefinite extent with the normative sciences of philosophy and of ethics, and when dealing with the human and society especially in the formulation of models of psychological and sociological health. Working towards some ideal goal requires subjective, nonobjective "opinionation" as to the "best". There is needed a substantial means of "subjective" proof. The suggestion is the positive proof of performance. If it works well, theoretically under universal conditions, transcending cultural and historical relativity, then it can be empirically experimentally, experientially and theoretically proved. There is a gap between the sciences and the humanities, between knowledge of the world and of human nature and of human purpose, between the objective and the subjective, between the limitations of psychology and the limitations of philosophy. Bridging this gap is an essential prerequisite for the foundations of world unity. A larger more powerful and comprehensive un-self limiting body of knowledge and thought, as part of a common conceptual understanding of humanity. Science must restore a common ground of faith between understanding of the world and of humanity's place and purpose in it.

 

One basic thesis which emerges from this approach is that the model of science in general inherited from the impersonal sciences of things, objects, animals and part processes is limited and inadequate when we attempt to know and to understand whole and individual persons and cultures. It was primarily the physicists and the astronomers who created the Weltanschauung and the subculture known as Science (including all its goals, methods, axiomatic values, concepts, languages, folkways prejudices, selective blindness, hidden assumptions). This has been pointed out by so many to amount to truism by now. But only recently has it been demonstrated just how and where this impersonal model failed with the personal, the unique, the holistic. None has an alternative model yet been offered to deal validly with the fully human person.

This I attempt to do in this book, I hope to show that these limitations of classical science are not intrinsically necessary. In the broad sense, science can be defined as powerful and inclusive enough to reclaim many of the cognitive problems from which it has had to abdicate because of its hidden but fatal weakness--its inability to deal impersonally with the personal, with the problems of value, of individuality, of consciousness, of beauty, of transcendence, of ethics. In principle, at least, science should be capable of generating normative psychologies of psycho therapy, of religion, of work, play and leisure, of esthetics, of economics and politics, and who knows what else?

 

…I have been disturbed not only by the moral "anal" scientists and the dangers of their denial of human values in science, along with the consequent amoral technologizing of all science. Just as dangerous are some of the critics of orthodox science who hind it too skeptical, too cool, and non-human, and then reject it altogether as a danger to human values. They become "anti-scientific" and anti-intellectual. This is a real danger among some psychotherapists and clinical psychologists, among artists, among some seriously religious people, among some of the people who are interested in Zen, in Taoism, in existentialism, "experimentalism" and the like. Their alternative to science is often sheer freakishness and cultishness, uncritical and selfish exaltation of mere personal experiencing, over reliance on impulsivity (which they confuse with spontaneity) arbitrary whimsicality and emotionality, unskeptical enthusiasm and finally navel watching and solipsism. This is a real danger. In the political realm, anti-science could wipe out mankind just as easily as could value free, amoral, technologized science. We should remember the Nazis and Fascists with their call to blood and to sheer instinct, and their hostility to freely probing intellect and to cool rationality.

…As a philosophical doctrine orthodox science is ethnocentric, being Western rather than universal. It is unaware that it is a product of time and place, that it is not an eternal, unchangeable, inexorably progressing truth. Not only is it relative to time, place and local culture but it is also characterologically relative, for I believe it to be a reflection far more narrowly of the cautious, obsessional world view centered on the need for safety than of a more mature, generally human, comprehensive view of life. Such weaknesses as these become especially glaring in the area of psychology where the goal is the knowledge of persons and other actions and works.

"But in this century and especially in the last decade or two, a counter philosophy has been rapidly developing along with a considerable revolt against the mechanistic, dehumanized view of man and the world. It might be called a rediscovery of man and his human capacities, needs and aspirations. These humanly based values are being restored to politics, to industry, to religion, and also to the psychological and social sciences. I might put it so: while it was necessary and helpful to dehumanize planets, rocks, and animals we are realizing more and more strongly that it is not necessary to dehumanize the human being and to deny him human purposes."

"Yet a certain re-humanization is also taking place even in the non-human and impersonal sciences, as Matson points out. This change is part of a larger and more inclusive, more "humanistic" world view. For the time being these two great philosophic orientations, the mechanistic and the humanistic, exist simultaneously like some species wide two party system."

 

"The Psychology of Science-A Reconnaissance" by Abraham Maslow.

 

An alternative philosophy of creativity is proffered as another prerequisite to the foundations of conceptual unity needed before world unity of human behavior can be attained. A common philosophical ground is corollary and complementary to the humanistic science, as the limitations of science in dealing with human behavior are the same source of the subject-object dichotomy of human thought that self limits and undermines philosophy. There is a need for a common philosophical foundation, one uniting the efficacy of each school of philosophical thought and transcending the divisive nature of all active philosophy. It is important because the premises on which humanity attempts to understand reality underlies and determines all epistemological conclusions, eventuating in the direction of all human endeavor. Science must not only be extended and enlarged into the humanities, but the fundamental normative science of the humanities, philosophy, of how the human perceives and conceives his world, must be enlarged and unified as well to include a more rational "scientific" basis of a universal reality.

"…This plague is a formal theory in technical philosophy, it is called: the analytic-synthetic dichotomy…In its dominant contemporary form, the theory states that there is a fundamental cleavage in human knowledge, which divides propositions or truths into two mutually exclusive (and jointly exhaustive) types. These types differ, it is claimed, in their origins, their referents, their cognitive status and the means by which they are validated…analytic truths represent concrete instances of the Law of Identity, as such they are also frequently called "tautologies" (which, etymologically means that the proposition repeats 'the same thing', e.g. …a rational animal is a rational animal. The solid form of water is a solid. Since all of the propositions of logic and mathematics can ultimately be analyzed and validated in this fashion, these are two subjects, it is claimed fall entirely within the "analytic" or "tautological" half of human knowledge…Synthetic propositions on the other hand…are said to be entirely different on all these accounts. A "synthetic" proposition is defined as one which cannot be validated merely by an analysis of the meanings or definitions of its constituent concepts…In this type of case, said Kant, the predicate of the proposition (e.g. "floats on water") states something about the subject ("ice") which is not already contained in the meaning of the subject-concept. (The proposition represents a synthesis of the subject with a new predicate, hence the name.) Such truths cannot be validated merely by correctly applying the laws of logic, they do not represent concrete instances of the Law of Identity. To deny such truths is to maintain a falsehood, but not a self contradiction…It is the facts of the case, not the laws of logic, which condemn such statements. Accordingly synthetic truths are held to be "factual" as opposed to "logical" or "tautological" in character…Analytic truths are necessary, no matter what region of space or what period of time one considers, such propositions must hold true…Synthetic truths, however, are declared not to be necessary, they are called "contingent". This means; as a matter of fact, in the actual world that men now observe, such propositions happen to be true--but they do not have to be true. They are not true in "in all possible worlds". Since its denial is self contradictory, the opposite of any synthetic truth is at least imaginable or conceivable…(c) Since analytic proposition are "logically" true, they can, it is claimed, be validated independently of experience; they are "non-empirical" or "a-priori" (today these terms means 'independent of experience')…Synthetic truths on the other hand, are said to be dependent upon experience for their validation, they are "empirical" or "a-posteriori". Analytic propositions provide no information about reality, they do not describe facts, they are "non-ontological" (i.e. do not pertain to reality). Analytic truths it is held, are created and sustained by men's arbitrary decision to use words (or concepts) in a certain fashion, they merely record the implications of linguistic (or conceptual) conventions….Synthetic propositions on the other hand, are factual and for this, man pays a price. The price is that they are contingent, uncertain and unprovable…The theory of the analytic-synthetic dichotomy presents men with the following choice: if your statement is proved, it says nothing about what which exists, if it is about existents, it cannot be proved…Objectivism rejects the theory of the analytic-synthetic dichotomy as false--in principle, at root, and in every one of its variants.

The ultimate result of the theory of the analytic-synthetic dichotomy is the following verdict pronounced on human cognition: if the denial of a proposition is inconceivable, if there is no possibility that any fact of reality can contradict it, i.e., if the proposition represents knowledge which is certain, then it does not represent knowledge of reality. In other words, if a proposition cannot be wrong, it cannot be right…This means, a proposition is regarded as arbitrary precisely because it has been logically proved…Now observe what is left of philosophy in consequence of this neo-Kantism…Metaphysics has been all but obliterated, its most influential opponents have declared that metaphysical statements are neither analytic nor synthetic and therefore are meaningless…Ethics has been virtually banished from the province of philosophy…Politics has been discarded by virtually all philosophic schools, in so far as politics deals with values, it has been relegated to the same status as ethics…Epistemology, the theory of knowledge, the science that defines the rules by which man is to acquire knowledge of facts has been disintegrated by the notion that facts are the subject matter of "synthetic", "empirical", propositions and therefore, are outside the province of philosophy--with the result that the special sciences are now left adrift in a rising tide of irrationalism…What we are witnessing is the self liquidation of philosophy…To regain philosophy realm, it is necessary to challenge and reject the fundamental premises which are responsible for today's debacle. A major step in that direction is the elimination of the death carrier known as the analytic-synthetic dichotomy.

 

"The Analytic-Synthetic Dichotomy" by Leonard Peikoff from Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology by Ayn Rand.

 

The philosophy of creativity is the direct extension of the theory of creativity already mentioned in this book. Its basis lies on the premises of reduction--that social behavior patterns and the problems that arise from them may be reduced conceptually to the way the individual deals with his environment and is subjected to many problems. Many social tendencies are ultimately reducible to being a collectivization of many individual tendencies by the constituents of the social system. Likewise it employs the principle of direct extension of individual tendencies to explain mass social tendencies. In context of world unity this implies the most inclusive and open human social system occurring, world humanity and reductively the most common individual tendencies encountered by humans--thus the necessity of the concept of a universal human nature. Corollary to the principles of reduction and extension are the concepts of complication, magnification, resonance and reverberation. These concepts imply that those tendencies which predominate at the individual level and the primary "immediate" level of inter-human social relationships become complicated and magnified at the higher levels of more distant social relationships to infect every form of human social expression and in turn complicated and further affect and influence the individual behavior patternings. An individual who lives primarily motivated by fear and a majority of constituents who are pathologically motivated results in the formation of an authoritarian power structure with many complex negativistic tendencies which in turn fosters social dependency by the individual and results in a dehumanization of the individual constituent. A vicious cycle that begins and ends with the individual and vice versa, begins and ends with the social institution.

Philosophy today suffers from a lack of comprehensiveness of definition and understanding, a general divisiveness occurring in all fields of philosophical application, which results in a failure of unity of human behavior which sets into motion many fundamentally irrational patterns of behavior, in thought and action, which interfere destructively with each other and which perseverate absurdly to the point of self frustration and self destruction. All too often individuals are unwilling to let go of philosophies which are founded on limited premises of understanding and which often contradicts the perceptual reality. They cling almost religiously to beliefs and outmoded functions--living blindly with their heads in the sand--and stubbornly refuse to accept new ideas and possibilities of thought. Such perserveration is a great source of inner security and consolation--yet it belies the facts of reality and reveals an underlying pathology. Philosophy is the understanding and definition of universally applicable human condition--often times posed as a confusing human dilemma--by its very definition it must never be a closed self contained system of conception--it strives constantly for a comprehensivity of thought and definition which will enable greater clarity of thought and facilitate human activity. There is no room for limited system of conception and belief in the purely human realm of philosophy. Philosophical thought considers every field and perspective of human understanding. It is the general utility of philosophy which is important--a utility vale which is often neglected, ignored, denied or forgotten. It is hoped that the comprehensive and generally applicable efficiency of the philosophy of creativity will be adequately demonstrate to widen the reader's horizon of understanding.

The importance of philosophy to world unity lies precisely in the concept of a universal human nature--in the idea that the origin and fundamental basis of all social problems and solutions ultimately rests within the understanding of the individual in context to his immediate environment. It is to the extent that in order to behave rationally a human needs to be guided by a "rational" philosophy. Rational behavior, social or individual, in thought or in physical activity, needs to be guided by a well defined and rational philosophical outlook by both the individual and by world society as a collective whole. The whole idea of changing for the better and of improvement starts with philosophical definition of what if better--of the first importance of philosophy in dictating human behavior. Before any human or society can change for the better they must start with changing and objectively defining their philosophical premises. Even definition of the pathological or of the bad requires implicit acceptance if not the conscious definition of what is healthy and good. Indeed it is precisely the extent that a human or a society fails to live according to a rational, utilitarian, conscious normatively philosophical premises--the extent that they neglect the first importance of philosophy--that they become frustrated and more dictated by their lower instinctual needs and behavior patterns. These negativistic patterns begin to predominate life and result in irrationally uncoordinated, fear motivated behavior patterns which so characterize the authoritarian personality and eventuate in the formation of the authoritarian power structure. Neglect and prejudicial ignorance of philosophical, rationally derived premises of understanding results in the dehumanization of the individual and the social system. This is the extent to which contemporary social systems are founded on prejudicial and limited premises of philosophical understanding--that they are based primarily on the conventionality of behavior. It is to the extent which the individual in his own private self actualization transcends those socially imposed conventions of behavior, of his inherited culture, that the individual achieves spiritual transcendence and is more characteristically human.

Creativity is both the means of making this transcendence and the ultimate expression and end of human behavior. But this is getting ahead of this story. Suffice it to say for how that creativity is a crucial element, a key concept which helps to explain much of the human dilemma and helps to unite philosophical understanding into a comprehensive whole. The following set of thoughts, ideas and conceptions are proffered to describe and give a cursory understanding of the philosophy of creativity--none of these opinions are meant to be construed as concise definition or as the absolute truth.

1. Philosophy implies comprehensive understanding which in turn implies a unity of all conceptions and perceptions. No single system of thought can be realistically considered as whole, or completely comprehensive. There is always the unknown and possible portion of human thought and of reality which complements that which is known. Philosophy is a unified, nonexclusive and non-exhaustive and open system of understanding. This implies the meaning of universe in context to human understanding. Considered objectively or subjectively it doesn’t really matter. Universe includes both the metaphysical (conceptual) reality and the physical (perceptual) reality. Philosophy is an unlimited system of thought.

2. The essential human dilemma of understanding which undermines philosophy as a tool is the product of illogical and irrational dichotomization of thought which divides the concept of universe and all philosophical subsystems into a intrinsically erroneous duality--expressed variously as the means versus ends dilemma, physical versus metaphysical reality, conceptual versus perceptual reality, objective versus subjective reality, analytic versus synthetic dichotomy and which affects virtually every field of human endeavor. Each duality implies mutual exclusiveness and results in limited philosophical systems. "Scientific versus Humanist."

3. Creativity is the human bridge between this apparent duality of reality. Creativity is directly opposed to dichotomization of human understanding. It is a process of integration in philosophical understanding. It enables theoretical formulation of truth--a unity, identity, entity and trinity of understanding. Philosophy is an enquiry of understanding--a dynamic process that can never stop. Creativity is exploration and discovery of truth. There exists both a-priori absolute truth, one which can never be completely comprehended by philosophy and a relative degree of a posteriori truth which is defined by the comprehensive limits of philosophy. Both conditions of truth are dependent upon the concept of a universal human nature which poses the problem of the human dilemma.

4. In order to overcome the dichotomization of the human dilemma philosophical creativity and understanding must be based upon an objectively well defined and empirically tenable system of conception firmly rooted in perceptual reality. The system of conception must be logical and rational. It must be based upon objectivist epistemology purported by Ayn Rand.

5. Creativity implies integration into a philosophical whole or integrity. It is both a means of personal and social reform. It is in a philosophical sense the key to happiness, the establishment of the "golden" mean and the essence of beauty and love. Creativity explains well human "purpose" in universe, that of the anti-entropic role of doing more with less as a result of metaphysical functioning in physical reality. This explains the concept of industrial ephemeralization and the concept of progressive evolution of technological evolution. It is the heart of technological invention of applied science and of theoretical integration in pure science. Creativity is the key to strategic success in every field of applied human behavior including warfare. Creativity is a purely "human" metaphysical counter functioning in the naturally entropic environment of physical reality.

6. The philosophical transcendence of the essential human dilemma enabled by creativity results in many seeming paradoxes which actually simplify through integration the "problem" and is the source of cleared resolution of the question. Indeed creative solution to any problem is itself concise definition and clear resolution of what the problem actually is. It consists of being able to ask the appropriate questions. Answers follow logically and rationally.

7. Creative expression is manifest in all forms of philosophically based normative behavior. It is often a spontaneous normative response to external conditions, it is a substitution process for the limitations poverty and frustration encountered in reality--especially in social relationships.

8. All people are naturally and potentially creative. They are born that way to an as yet undetermined and individually relative degree.

9. Creative development is spontaneous--it arises naturally from within the individual if it is not frustrated and if the individual is left to his own means of self determination and if the individual consciously strives to develop it in an objective form of expression.

10. The concept of creativity centers around the concept of the self as opposed to the "selfless" concept of society reflected in ideas of selfless altruism and religious and secular self sacrifice. Creativity implies self development, self discipline, self realization, self actualization and self transcendence of selfish narcissism. Creativity means self fulfillment which in turn means the future success of mankind on the earth.

11. Creativity is opposed to social behavior--its only relationship to social dependency is in a passive sense of society supplying the contextual framework, the objective resource "materials" the means of final objectified expression and the audience by which creativity achieves verification. Society is of secondary importance to the actual creative function. Creativity is the realm of the individual and not the domain of social organization. This defines the nature of the individuals natural relationship to his state, one of preeminent and primary importance. It is the reversal of this primary relationship which results in reciprocal pathological development of the state and the individual.

12. Creativity defines self evident, natural and fundamental human life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, in all their relative connotations. It explains the primary importance of individual rights over state privileges. Creativity requires freedom from social convention, in thought and actions, and independence from suffocating social relationships. It requires a relative degree of isolation and solitude. Relative to human nature, in context to the whole of humanity, creativity should logically dictate the appropriate social, political and economic extensions and systems which will maximize its occurrence.

13. It is to the extent that the "natural" proclivity toward creativity becomes frustrated either genetically or phenomenologically--either through the subconscious inheritance of cultural conventions of behavior or the conscious socialization influences--that a person sacrifices his own integrity and creativity for conformity valuations and behaviors and the dependent security this relationship fosters. Many people never realize their creative potential--it is too often frustrated and limited at a very early age. Many social institutions, family school work and play strive without necessarily realizing to suppress and repress creative forms of self expression which are deemed threatening to the pathologically motivated and to those whose own creativity has been frustrated or transformed into destructive. Such repression is deemed reinforcing of social behavior and necessary to the order and security of the system.

14. Frustrated creativity eventuated in pathological development and in destructiveness. In the sense of undeveloped or mal-developed potentiality, all humans born potentially destructive under the right social circumstances, which primarily occurs through frustration by socialization influences. While humans are "inherently" aggressive--a fundamental aggression shared with other lower older animal species--the social manifestations the more complex "human" forms of aggression are synthetic in this respect--being derived primarily from social frustration, convention, prejudice, immaturity which takes the form of dehumanization and the extreme instance of militarism and war. Natural aggression is fundamentally a "spontaneous" life oriented force and not a death oriented drive.

15. The creative individual is opposed to the "true believer" stereotyped as the religious or political fanatic or as the believer in any conventional ideology or behavior pattern. It is the person who questions convention instead of taking it for granted. It is one who is always critical and never completely accepting of "truth".

16. A person who is creative is philosophically active and therefore has no need for belief in dogma. Such a person is actively engaged in determining his religious convictions and is not merely a passive determinant of a person striving to consciously integrate philosophical conviction with physical-practical-reality. A creative person is an active determiner of the future in any form, not only of his own private future but ultimately of the social future of all humanity.

17. Creativity is inherently revolutionary in the context of human acceptance and incorporation of change--to the extent that convention and prejudice hinders future development and rejects change. Creativity defines and characterizes the revolutionary personality as opposed to the anti-creative authoritarian personality. The authoritarian power structure so predominating in social relationships is founded on the suppression and repression of creativity and change.

18. Creativity is life oriented as opposed to the death orientation of destructiveness. Creativity is humanizing as opposed to the dehumanization of the authoritarian power structure.

19. The arts in all its forms are the direct means of creative expression. They serve no more important purpose than that. The arts are inherently creative and therefore useful to "human" philosophical needs.

20. Creativity is the crux of the art of leadership--the only valid form of rational human leadership--the setting of the inspirational example. As such creativity and the arts as is primary means of expression are not of subsidiary importance to social life and human existence but are a necessary and obligatory responsibility which is prejudicially ignored, actively denied and continually frustrated by the "true believer". The socially proclaimed "leaders" who have made of this criminal irresponsibility an institution and as a means of selfish existence form the apex of the authoritarian power structure.

21. Creativity has much historical support and offers much support for future human development and hope for humanity's future. It is the only means of surmounting the problems encountered today, especially the extreme divisiveness of human behavior which prevents world unity and threatens world catastrophe. Over specialization is a failure of adequate creative integration of the dichotomized realities of the human philosophical dilemma. Behavioral results of over specialization of the individual in context to his social environment are maladaptive behavior patterning and a failure to functionally incorporate change into the social structure. It will eventuate in self destructive behavior and in inevitable extinction. It reflects a failure to change.

22. The greatest individuals--the greatest contributors to human civilization--and not just the historically renowned or notorious personages--the true leaders of human history have been those who have achieved the greatest creative expression in their respective fields of application. They have been the most self actualized and the most self fulfilled. High intelligence is not necessarily indicative of high creative ability. These are interrelated and complementary but neither is wholly dependent upon the other. Intellect is often more a hindrance to creativity in as far as it is founded on convention of thought--on purely analytical constructs and knowledge. Indeed creativity actually requires a temporary suspension of "logic" of intelligence and conventional knowledge, to consider the alternative possibilities of the illogical or the unknown. The intellectual geniuses have not necessarily been the greatest contributors to human progress whereas the creative geniuses have almost invariably been the greatest and most revolutionary leaders of human civilization.

Creativity is not the whole story of human nature or the whole solution of all the problems of human reform and progress but it is a very critical and necessary part of that story and solution. It offers a philosophical unity of understanding which no other single concept does. It has not as yet been formally recognized or elaborated in this crucial role it plays, even though its importance in many fields and its intrinsic value has been well published time and again. It explains many dilemmas and is the source of many paradoxes. It offers much simplicity of abstraction and a certain parsimony which accords well with theoretical validation. It underlies every other philosophical perspective of this book. Its intrinsic importance cannot be over stressed.

The philosophy of creativity is founded on the validation of the important theory of creativity to "human" reality and of the importance of "creative" philosophy to world unity. It may seem absurd to better informed people to think that creativity is the answer and solution to all human problems. It is definitely not this. It is only a personal opinion that creativity lies at the heart of most human problems--indeed it is believed to be the crux of the whole "human dilemma". Until it can scientifically proven this explanation of creativity will remain only an opinion. It only leaves the question to be asked, is there not some other means of validation and proof not wholly scientific and not wholly philosophical which might be otherwise quite acceptable and palatable to human belief? Perhaps common sense of the obvious might be sufficient.

The economist thinks in terms of economics. The politician thinks in terms of power. The lawyer thinks in terms of legality. The scientist views the world differently than the clergyman. Yet it is not reality which separates people and hinders world unity. It is the failure of the individual to think comprehensively enough to be able to incorporate into his world of conception and understanding the worlds of other people. From a utilitarian point of view, this comprehensive integration is the primary function and purpose of philosophy--a responsibility that modern philosophy has failed. Philosophy remains steeped in the same ideological dogmatisms and self limiting prejudicial premises which serve to divide the many different conceptual world of humanity. A human is best as a specialist in his own field of technical expertise, the conceptual world is much too vast and complex for total comprehension by any single individual. Yet this does not deny the individual of his natural need for an integrated and comprehensive understanding of the whole, as if it were a single unity or entity--it is the human need to feel at one with his world--the same for all humanity. This is the task of philosophy. Over specialization of the human in his social relationships is the indirect result of this divisiveness of human understanding--it is reflected in the divisive functioning and organization of the general social system. The goal is not to change the human for he must be at one with this own nature--the same for all people. The goal is to change the social system to allow the individual to acquire that feeling of integrity. The change must begin with philosophy. The resurrection of a world integrating philosophy will signal the resurrection of a new world humanity.

 

Aesthetics, a long branch of normative "science", an essential branch of philosophy is of vital importance in its every aspect as the most fundamental "objective" means of expression of how humanity views reality. Its direction is not only a reflection of the underlying influence of science and philosophy, but in itself is a prime mover and anticipator of the new forms and directions these other cognitive and normative branches of intellectual functioning will take. The vital importance of aesthetics, as a positive, objective affirmation of human purpose--as a romantic ideal--is prerequisite to the cementing of the philosophical foundations for world unity as an affirmation of positive human culture. Aesthetics must take its rightful place in common human valuation, not to be degraded and neglected in its expression, as well as in its criticism as subordinate to any other ends outside itself: political, economic, religious, etc. The romantic aesthetic serves as the basis for world unity which must be cultivated in all forms of artistic expression. It is the reaffirmation of the purpose of life. It is the absence of such place that has served in the conceptual world of humanity as the degrading element in aesthetics, a degradation that seems to have particularly afflicted the current world trending in the world of art.

 

What is the importance of art in world unity? Very simply art is the definition, reflection and expression of quality which pervades every aspect and facet of human existence. True art has no purpose beyond itself. Human art, like human rights, human health, life and nature in general, is an end in itself which requires no subsequent justification of application--any such efforts is only debasement of true art. True art is not a means to any other end that is not intrinsic to the nature of art itself. The nature of art is the nature of the human. It is natural expression of human creativity--in any shape, form or condition. True art is the highest humanly possible form of expression of that essential creativity which interrelated the human role in the omni-functioning reality of nature. While true art is most often degraded where it can be found, the degree to which it is manifest despite impure degradation of purpose and function, is also evidence of the degree to which the affirmation of life, positive respect for humanitarian valuation, individual freedom and independence from convention and prejudice and fulfillment of human rights and health have been achieved in common social functioning. Art enhances the quality of life.

While art itself is a human end without need of justification of function or purpose, the romantic aesthetic is the highest possible value, social judgment and purpose that can be attached to the role of art in human society. In this role of the romantic aesthetic, art is the primary medium of social communication--a medium that is extremely diverse, multifaceted and virtually unlimited. While the romantic aesthetic is the objective expression of live, beauty and life, yet it is paradoxical to human nature that art will always remain an extremely subjective and relativistic form of communication--individually as well as culturally. True art is self identification. True art cannot be shackled or restrained by social convention, religious dogma, political propaganda, cultural tradition or by scientifically applied communication techniques. While these are possible means of art, they are not the true ends of true art. Boredom is antithetical to the realm of true art. As such boredom is the primary negative motivational stimulus to artistic communication. Art is empowered by the human need for change, for new possible conceptual and perceptual stimuli because of dissatisfaction with the old. In the context of the primary form of social communication, true art is revolutionary--both locally and universally.

The idea that the primary function of art is conceptual and perceptual revolution helps to relate the social role of art as the anticipator of social innovation and change and helps to identify the social role of the true artist as that of revolutionary leader. True art is the personal exploration for new perceptual and conceptual possibilities: the romantic aesthetic is the social exploration for the ideal, objective realization of the perfect, and the communicable discovery of the true. True art eventuates in conceptual space, freedom, vision and power which leads in turn to social reform and a reciprocal improvement and qualitative enhancement of the individual's existence. Art is the prime initiator and mover of technological invention and social innovation which are in turn the prime levers of progressive evolution of human civilization. To the extent that the social function of art is communication, the most appropriate and universal form of this inter-human communication is the conveyance of subjective mood. To the extent that the romantic aesthetic is part of the social role of true art, this mood is necessarily inspirational. The social function of the romantic aesthetic stands in direct counter valence to that of established religions--both are founded and derive power from the same fundamental source of human inspiration. The personal function of the romantic aesthetic is to provide a means of transcendence over all those limitations--external and internal, social and nonsocial, conceptual and perceptual, that the individual human encounters in day to day existence. In the final analysis true art can be viewed as the prime mover of individual and social reform and leadership.

As the primary expression of creativity, art is found in every human activity--even in war. It is the only means of successful human behavior. To the extent that the romantic aesthetic is the highest possible affirmation of positive human success, does true art function as the primary social role in human existence. Cultivation of the understanding and realization of this social role is critical to laying the conceptual foundations of world unity. This is the importance of art to world unity.

 

"Romanticism is a category of art based on the recognition of the principle that man possesses the faculty of volition…"

"Their opposite answers to this question constitutes the respective basic premises of two broad categories of art: Romanticism which recognizes the existence of man's volition and Naturalism which denies it…"

"Just as man's aesthetic preferences are the sum of his metaphysical values and the barometer of his soul, so art is the sum and barometer of a culture. Modern art is the most eloquent demonstration of the cultural bankruptcy of our age."

"Art (including literature) is the barometer of a culture. It reflects the sum of a society's deepest philosophical values, not its professed notions and slogans, but its actual view of man and of existence…"

"…The dominant trend may not in fact express the soul of an entire people, it may be rejected, resented or ignored by an overwhelming majority, but if it is the dominant voice of a given period, this tells us something about the state of the people's souls."

"One of the grimmest monuments to altruism is man's culturally induced selflessness: his willingness to live with himself as with the unknown, to ignore, evade, repress the personal (the nonsocial) needs of his soul, to know least about the things that matter most and thus to consign his deepest values to the impotent underground of subjectivity and his life to the dreary wasteland of chronic guilt."

"The cognitive neglect of art has persisted precisely because the foundation of art is nonsocial. (This is one more instance of altruism's inhumanity, of its brutal indifference to the deepest needs of man--of an actual individual man. It is an instance of the inhumanity of any moral theory that regards moral values as a purely social matter!) art belongs to a non-socialized aspect of reality, which is universal (i.e. applicable to all men) but non-collective to the nature of man's consciousness."

"One of the distinguishing characteristics of a work of art is that is serves no practical material end, but is an end in itself, it serves no purpose other than contemplation and the pleasure of that contemplation is so intense, so deeply personal that a man experiences it as a self sufficient, self justifying primary and often resists or resents any suggestions to analyze it, the suggestion to him has the quality of an attack on his identity, on his deepest, essential self."

"Art does have a purpose and does serve a human need, only it is not a material need but a need of man's consciousness. Art is inextricably tied to man's survival--not to his physical survival but to that on which his physical survival depends, to the preservation of his consciousness."

"Apart from its many other evils, conventional morality is not concerned with the formation of a child's character. It does not teach or show him what kind o f man he ought to be and why, it is concerned only with imposing a set of rules on him--concrete, arbitrary, contradictory and more often than not, incomprehensible rules, which are mainly prohibitions and duties."

"The major source and demonstration of moral values available to a child is Romantic art. Romantic art offers him is not moral rules, not an explicit didactic message, but the image of a moral person--i.e. the concretized abstraction of a moral ideal."

"It is not abstract principles that a child learns from Romantic art, but the precondition and the incentive for the later understanding of such principles, the emotional experience of admiration for man's highest potential…"

"The translation of this sense of life into adult, conceptual terms would, if unimpeded, follow the growth of the child's knowledge and the two basic elements of his soul, the cognitive and normative, would develop together in serenely harmonious integration…"

"The most devastating part of this process is the fact that a child's moral sense of life is destroyed not only by means of such weaknesses or flaws as he might have developed, but by means of his barely emerging virtues…it is his virtues that are turned against him, his intelligence, his ambition and whatever respect he might feel for the knowledge and judgment of his elders."

"Thus the foundation of a lethal dichotomy is laid in his consciousness the practical versus the moral, with the un-stated, pre-conceptual implication that practicality requires the betrayal of one's values, the renunciation of ideals."

"His rationality is turned against him by means of a similar dichotomy: reason versus emotion. His Romantic sense of life is only a sense, an incoherent emotion which he can neither communicate nor explain nor defend. It is an intense, yet fragile emotion, painfully vulnerable to any sarcastic allegation since he is unable to identify its real meaning."

"A sense of life is a pre-conceptual equivalent of metaphysics, an emotional, subconsciously integrated appraisal of man and of existence. It sets the nature of a man's emotional responses and the essence of his character. Every choice and value judgment implies some estimate of himself and of the world around him--most particularly of his capacity to deal with the world. He may draw conscious conclusions which may be true or false, or he may remain mentally passive and merely react to events (i.e. merely feel). Whatever the case may be, his subconscious mechanisms sums up his psychological activities, integrating his conclusions, reactions or evasions into an emotional sum that establishes a habitual pattern and becomes his automatic response to the world around him. What began as a series of single discrete conclusions (or evasions) about his own particular problems, becomes a generalized feeling about existence, an implicit metaphysics with the compelling motivational power of a constant basic emotion, which is part of all his other emotions and underlies all his experiences. This is a sense of life."

"To the extent to which a man is mentally active, i.e. motivated by the desire to know, to understand, his mind works as the programmer of his emotional computer and his sense of life develops into a bright counterpart of a rational philosophy. To the extent to which a man evades, the programming of his emotional computer is done by chance influences, by random impressions, associations, imitations, by undigested snatches of environmental bromides, by cultural osmosis. If evasion or lethargy is a man's predominant method of mental functioning, the result is a sense of life dominated by fear--a soul like a shapeless piece of clay stamped by footprints going in all directions (in later years, such a man cries that he has lost his sense of identity, the fact is that he never acquired it)."

"Man by his nature, cannot refrain from generalizing, he cannot live moment by moment, without context, without past or future, he cannot eliminate his integrating capacity, i.e. his conceptual capacity, and confine his consciousness to an animal' s perceptual range…The enormously powerful integrating mechanism of man's consciousness is there at birth, his only choice is to drive it or to be driven by it. Since an act of volition--a process of thought--is required to use that mechanism for a cognitive purpose, man can evade that effort."

"A sense of life is formed by a process of emotional generalization which may be described as a subconscious counterpart of a process of abstraction, since it is a method of classifying and integrating. But it is a process of emotional abstraction, it consists of classifying things according to the emotions they invoke, i.e. of tying together by association or connotation all those things which have the power to make an individual experience the same (or similar) emotion…"

"Philosophy does not replace a man's sense of life, which continues to function as the automatically integrated sum of his values. But philosophy sets the criteria of his emotional integrations according to a fully defined and consistent view of reality (if and to the extent that a philosophy is rational). Instead of deriving, subconsciously, an implicit metaphysics from his value judgments he now derives conceptually his value judgments from an explicit metaphysics. His emotions proceed from his fully convinced judgments. The mind leads, the emotions follow."

"If his mind does not provide him with a comprehensive view of existence, his sense of life will. If he succumbs to centuries of concerted assaults on the mind--to traditions offering vicious irrationality or unconscionable nonsense in the guise of philosophy--if he gives up, in lethargy or bewilderment, evades fundamental issues and concerns himself only with the concrete's of his day to day existence, his sense of life takes over, for good or evil (and usually for evil) he is left at the mercy of a subconscious philosophy which he does not know, has never checked, has never been aware of accepting."

"Then as his fear, anxiety and uncertainty mount year by year, he finds himself living with a sense of unknown, indefinable doom, as if in expectation of some approaching judgment day. What he does not know is that every day of his life is judgment day, the day of paying for the defaults, the lies, the contradictions, the blank outs, recorded by his subconscious sense of life."

"A sense of life, once acquired, is not a closed issue. It can be changed and corrected--easily in youth while it is still fluid, or by a longer, harder effort in later years. Since it is an emotional sum, it cannot be changed by a direct act of will. It changes automatically, but only after a long process of psychological restraining, when and if a man changes his conscious philosophical premises."

"Whether he corrects it or not, whether it is objectively consonant with reality or not, at any stage or state of its specific content, a sense of life retains a profoundly personal quality, it reflects a man's deepest values, it is experienced by him as a sense of his own identity."

"There are two aspects of a man's existence which are the special province of and expression of his sense of life: love and art."

"A man's treason to his art values is not the primary cause of his neurosis (it is a contributory cause) but it becomes one of its most revealing symptoms. This last is of particular importance to the man who seeks to solve his psychological problem. Romantic art offers him a clear luminous impersonal abstraction and thus a clear objective test of his inner state, a clue available to his conscious mind."

"It is the artist's sense of life that controls and integrates his work, directing the innumerable choices he has to make, from the choice of subject to the subtlest details of style. It is the viewer's or reader's sense of life that responds to a work of art by a complex, yet automatic reaction of acceptance and approval, or rejection and condemnation."

"The emotion involved in art is not an emotion in the ordinary meaning of the term. It is experienced more as a 'sense' or a 'feel' but it has two characteristics pertaining to emotions, it is automatically immediate and it has an intense profoundly personal (yet undefined) value meaning to the individual experiencing it. The value involved in life and the words naming the emotion are 'This is what life means to me'".

"This does not mean that communication is not the primary purpose of the artist, his primary purpose is to bring his view of man and of existence into reality, but to be brought into reality it has to be translated in objective (therefore communicable) terms."

"Man's sense of life provides him with the integrated sum of his metaphysical abstractions, art concretizes them and allows him to perceive--to experience--their immediate reality."

"The importance of that experience is not in what man learns from it, but in what he experiences it. The fuel is not a theoretical principle, not a didactic 'message' but the life giving fact of experiencing a moment of metaphysical joy, a moment of love for existence."

"It is important to stress, however, that even though moral values are inextricably involved in art, they are involved only as a consequence, not as a casual determinant. The primary focus of art is metaphysical, not ethical. Art is not the 'handmaiden' of morality, its basic purpose if not to educate, to reform or to advocate anything…the basic purpose of art is not to teach, but to show, to hold up to man a concretized image of his nature and his place in the universe."

"…but that influence and that 'message' to its audience are only secondary consequences. Art is not the means to any didactic end. This is the difference between a work of art and a morality play or a propaganda poster. The greater the work of art the more profoundly universal its theme. Art is not the means of literal transcription. This is the difference between a work of art and a news story or a photograph."

"The destruction of Romanticism in aesthetics--like the destruction of individualism in ethics or of capitalism in politics was made possible by philosophical default. It is one more demonstration of the principle that which is not known explicitly is not in man's conscious control. In all three cases the nature of the fundamental values involved have never been identified explicitly, the issues were taught in terms of nonessentials and the values were destroyed by men who did not know what they were losing or why."

"It is impossible to predict the time of a philosophical renaissance. One can only define the road to follow but not its length. What is certain however is that every aspect of Western culture needs a new code of ethics--a rational ethics--as a precondition of rebirth. And perhaps no aspect needs it more desperately than the realm of art…"

 

"The Romantic Manifesto" by Ayn Rand.

 

Yet another alternative prerequisite to the foundation of world unity is what I have termed the ethic of love, not sexual love, but a higher form, a reverence for the dignity of life, and idiographic knowledge of the human individual as a subjective integrated whole--a unique entity that can only be understood fully in an act of union, love must be for the individual's whole being, of the full self without the discoloration of projection and stereotype. Love for humanity as a whole dictates a universal ethical code, which determines and underlies all human behavior, neither relative nor dependent to any specialized instance. The ethic of love is the same for all humans, not to be subordinated to any inferior code of social moral behavior, religious, political or ideological in any sense. The ethic of love implies a respect for human integrity and individuality. Again this ethical "science" is a prerequisite in the conceptual foundation of world unity. The power of a new humanistic science, objectivist philosophy and a renaissance of romantic aesthetics is fertile breeding grounds for the resurrection of a new code of ethics based on love. It implies mutual inter-human trust and rational love guided behavior on the part of the whole of humanity. The power of love transcends scientific, philosophical and aesthetic considerations in the human interrelationships with one another. Love implies full knowledge, not ignorance--apathy arising from neglect, dehumanization, alienation, disintegration of the self. Boredom is the symptom of the pathologization of love. The ethical importance of love is undeniable.

 

"I am referring to romantic love, in the serious meaning of that term--as distinguished from the superficial infatuation of those whose sense of life is devoid of any consistent values, i.e. of any lasting emotions other than fear. Love is a response to values. It is with a person's sense of life that one falls in love--with that essential sum, that fundamental stand or way of facing existence, which is the essence of a personality. One falls in love with the embodiment of the value that formed a person's character, which are reflected in his widest goals or smallest gestures, which create the style of his soul, the individual style of a unique unrepeatable, irreplaceable consciousness. It is one's own sense of life that acts as the selector and responds to what is recognizes as one's own basic values in the person of another. It is not a matter of professed convictions (though these are not irrelevant); it is a matter of much more profound conscious and subconscious harmony."

"Many errors and tragic disillusionment are possible in this process of emotional recognition, since a sense of life by itself, is not a reliable cognitive guide. And if there are degrees of evil, then one of the most evil consequences of mysticism--in terms of human suffering--is the belief that love is a matter of 'the heart', not the mind, that love is an emotion independent of reason, that love is blind and impervious to the power of philosophy. Love is the expression of philosophy--of a subconscious philosophical sum--and perhaps no other aspect of human existence needs the conscious power of philosophy quite so desperately. When that power is called upon to verify and support an emotional appraisal, when love is a conscious integration of reason and emotion, of mind and values, then and only then, it is the greatest reward of man's life."

 

"The Romantic Manifesto" by Ayn Rand.

 

"…But if we mean by ethics what was meant by the term in the great philosophical or religious tradition, then ethics is not a code of behavior valid for certain fields. In this tradition ethics refers to a particular orientation which is rooted in man and which, therefore is not valid in reference to this or that person or to this or that situation but to all human beings…Conscience is the organ of this ethical attitudes, if we speak of ethics in the sense of the great philosophical and religious tradition of the East and West, then ethics is not a code, it is a matter of conscience."

"…It is important to keep in mind a distinction between authoritarian conscience and humanistic conscience…Authoritarian conscience, or super ego is the internalized power of the father, originally, later it is the internalized authority of society…"

"Now the second type of conscience which is not internalized authority, I called humanistic conscience, referring to the philosophic nor religious tradition. This conscience is an inner voice that calls us back to ourselves. By this 'ourselves' is meant the human core common to all men, that is, certain basic characteristics of man which cannot be violated or negated without serious consequences."

"I believe that the statement 'Man is not a thing' is the central topic of the ethical problem of modern man. Man is not a thing, and if you try to transform him into a thing because you transform a living thing into a corpse.' A corpse is a thing. Man is not. Ultimate power--the power to destroy--is exactly ultimately power of transforming life into a thing. Man cannot be taken apart and put together again, a thing can be. A thing is predictable: Man is not. A thing cannot create, Man can. A thing has no self. Man has. Man has the capacity to say the most peculiar and difficult word in our language, the word 'I'…"

"I want to mention one more point here which refers to the difference between knowing things and knowing man. I can study a corpse or an organ and it is a thing…But if I want to know a man, I cannot study him in this way…The problem the psychiatrist and the psychoanalyst are concerned with however, the problem we should all be concerned with--to understand our neighbor and ourselves--is to understand a human being who is not a thing. And the process of this understanding cannot be accomplished by the same method in which knowledge in the natural sciences can be accomplished. The knowledge of man is possible only in the process of relating ourselves to him…Ultimate knowledge cannot be expressed in thought or words…And you can never exhaust the description of a personality, of a human being, in his full individuality, but you can know him in an act of empathy, in an act of full experience, in an act of love…"

"What then are the ethical demands of our day? First of all to overcome this 'thingness' or to use a technical term, the 'reification' of man, to overcome or indifference, our alienation from others, from nature and from ourselves. Second to arrive again at a new sense of 'I-ness' of self, of an experience 'I am' rather than succumb to the automaton feeling in which we have the illusion that 'I think that I think' when actually I do not think at all but am rather like someone who puts on a record and thinks he plays the music of the record."

 

"Medicine and the Ethical Problem of Modern Man" from the book The Dogma of Christ and Other Essays on Religion, Psychology and Culture by Erich Fromm.

 

"The problem of how man should act if his government prescribes actions or society expects an attitude which his own conscience considers wrong is indeed an old one. It is easy to say that the individual cannot be held responsible for acts carried out under irresistible compulsion because the individual is fully dependent upon the society in which he is living and therefore must accept its rules. But the very formulation of this idea makes it obvious to what extent such a concept contradicts our sense of justice."

"External compulsion can to a certain extent, reduce but never cancel the responsibility of the individual. In the Nuremberg trial this idea was considered to be self evident. Whatever is morally important in our institution, laws and mores can be traced back to interpretation of the sense of justice of countless individuals. Institutions are in a moral sense important unless they are supported by the sense of responsibility of living individuals. An effort to arouse and strengthen this sense of responsibility of the individual is an important service to mankind."

 

"The State and the Individual Conscience" from Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein 1950.

 

Fulfillment on the moral and aesthetic side is a goal which leads to the preoccupation of art than it does to those of science. Of course, understanding of our fellow beings is important, but this understanding becomes fruitful only when it is sustained by sympathetic feeling in the joy and in the sorrow. The cultivation of this most important spring of moral action is that which is left of religion when it has been purified of the elements of superstition. In this sense, religion forms and important part of education where it receives far too little consideration and that little not sufficiently systematic.

"he frightful dilemma of the political world situation has much to do with the sin of omission on the part of our civilization. Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity."

 

"The Need for Ethical Culture" from Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein 1951.

 

Current religion remain stepped in dogma, tradition and in anthropomorphic superstition in resistance to scientific validation or integration. The fundamental purpose of religion is the assuagement of doubt in the fulfillment of the normative needs of the individual constituent conforming to a collectively common set of beliefs. Because of the social authoritarian crystallization of the power to influence the constituents of the religion, the fundamental rationality of purpose for the individual remains disguised in mystical and fallacious illusions which serve only to maintain the ignorance and predictability of its adherents. Falsified demigods disguised beneath the dress of the sacred, God sent authority, gain personal security and advantage over others. Because of the general tendency for religions to resist scientifically based evolutionary social changes, i.e. the advance of technological civilization they have become hypocritical and are rejected by many actively intelligent and revolutionary modern personalities. The authoritarian power structure affects the world of religion as well as it infects the world of militarism and of politics. Worldwide, religions remain fragmented, and directly unserving to the most elementary spiritual needs of the individual as a member of world society. To achieve honorable foundation for a world religion one must carefully and delicately separate the illusory dogma from each prevailing religion of the world and integrate its most valuable universal essence with the views of a common world of science, philosophy and ethics. The fundamental morality of any religion must be viewed in terms of the whole of humanity, believers and non-believers included. The dichotomization of which morality leads only to its substitution as means to achieving authoritarian power and control over people. A world religion must be oriented to and serving of the individual lifestyles of all humanity. It must never by force achieve adherence. It must be taught by living exemplification and not just preached. While science becomes dehumanizing by failing to integrate 'religious' spiritually into its functioning methodology and philosophy, religion dogmatically denies science as irrelevant as being essentially atheistic and even sacrilegious.

 

"Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. In general only individuals of exceptional endowments and exceptionally high minded communities rise to any considerable extent above this level. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely fond in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it."

"The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole. The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling appears at an early stage of development…"

"The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which means no dogma and no God conceived in man's image: so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. Hence it is precisely the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feelings and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists sometimes also as saints…"

"How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another, if it can give rise to no definite notion of a God and no theology? In my view it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it."

 

"Religion and Science" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

"The scientist is possessed by the sense of universal causation. The future, to him, is every whit as necessary and determined as the past. There is nothing divine about morality: it is purely a human affair. His religious feelings takes the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law, which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. This feeling is the guiding principle of his life and work, in so far as he succeeds in keeping himself from the shackles of selfish desire. It is beyond question closely akin to that which has possessed the religious geniuses of all ages."

 

"The Religious Spirit of Science" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

"…It is very high goal which, with our weak powers we can reach only very adequately, but which gives a sure foundation to our aspirations and valuations. If one were to take that goal out of its religious form and look closely at its purely human side, one might state it perhaps thus: free and responsible development of the individual, so that he may place his powers freely and gladly in the service of mankind."

"There is room in this for the divination of a nation, of a class, let alone of an individual. Are we not all children of one father, as it is said in religious language? Indeed, even the divination of humanity, as an abstract totality, would not be in the spirit of that idea. It is only to the individual that a soul is given. And the high destiny of the individual is to serve rather than to rule, or to impose himself in any other way…

…If one holds these high principles clearly before one's eyes, and compares them with the life and spirit of our time, then it appears glaringly that civilized mankind finds itself at present in grave danger. In the totalitarian states it is the rulers themselves who strive actually to destroy that spirit of humanity. In less threatened parts it is the nationalism and intolerance as well as the oppression of the individuals by economic means, which threaten to choke those most previous traditions…

…But I am persuaded that such behavior on the part of the representative of religion would not only be unworthy but also fatal. For a doctrine which is able to maintain itself not in clear light but only in the dark will of necessity lose its effect on mankind, with incalculable harm to human progress. In their struggle for the ethical good, teachers of religion must have the stature to give up the doctrine of a personal God, that is, give up that source of fear and hope which in the past placed such vast power in the hands of priests. In their labors they will have to avail themselves of these forces which are capable of cultivating the Good, the True and the Beautiful in humanity itself. This is, to be sure, a more difficult but an incomparably more worthy task.

 

"Science and Religion" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

When we consider the various religions as to their essential substance, that is, divested of their myths, they do not seem to me to differ as basically from each other as the proponents of the relativistic or conventional theory wish us to believe. And this is by no means surprising. For the moral attitudes of a people that is supported by religion need always aim at preserving and promoting the sanity and vitality of the community and its individuals, since otherwise this community is bound to perish. A people that were to honor falsehood, defamation, fraud and murder would be unable, indeed, to subsist for very long.

When considering the actual living conditions of present day civilized humanity from the standpoint of even the most elementary religious commands, one is bound to experience a feeling of deep and painful disappointment at what one sees. For while religion prescribes brotherly love in the relations among the individuals and groups, the actual spectacle resembles more a battlefield than an orchestra. Everywhere, in economic as well as in political life, the guiding principle is one of ruthless striving for success at the expense of one's fellowmen. This competitive spirit prevails even in school and destroying all feelings of human fraternity and cooperation, conceives of achievement not as derived from the love for productive and thoughtful work, but as springing from personal ambition and fear of rejection.

 

"Religion and Science: Irreconcilable?" from Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

In consideration of the basic components of a world religion there are offered four alternative interrelated functions which might be implemented before religion can achieve successful world wide integration with those that are already existing. The first is on gradual development of a common inspirational faith of freedom. Inspirational faith is the most basic component of religious belief, being founded on the trust of knowledge rather than superstitious fear and mistrust of ignorance. It is extensible to inter-human relationship in the belief that freedom of individual development, a hands off approach of unrestricted natural growth. The development of this faith in all inter-human relationships, is a very gradual process of encouraging inspirationally oriented, independent development displacing as much as possible the regressive authoritarian restrictions of growth which are so prevalent. The concept of freedom rests squarely within the related concepts of autonomy and independence. This faith can only be inspired, not enforced in the normative development by setting of its example in individual lifestyles. This natural faith is common to all healthy individuals. It is a fundamental faith which must be cultivated within text to the whole of humanity.

 

"I know that it is a hopeless thing to debate about fundamental value judgments. For instance, if someone approves, as a goal, the extirpation of the human race from the earth, one cannot refute such a viewpoint on rational grounds, but if there is an agreement of certain goals and values, one can argue rationally about the means by which these objectives may be obtained. Let us then indicate two goals which may well be agreed upon by nearly all who read these lines.

1. Those instrumental goods which serve to maintain the life and health of all human beings should be produced by the least possible labor of all.

2. The satisfaction of physical needs is indeed the indispensable precondition of a satisfactory existence, but in itself is not enough. In order to be content, men must also have the possibility of developing their intellectual and artistic powers to whatever extent accords with their personal characteristics and abilities."

"The first of these two goals requires the promotion of all knowledge relating to the laws of nature and the laws of social processes, that is, the promotion of all scientific endeavor. For scientific endeavor is a natural whole, the parts of which mutually support one another in a way which, to be sure, no one can anticipate. However, the progress of science presupposes the possibility of unrestricted communication of all results and judgments--freedom of expression and instruction in all realms of intellectual endeavor. By freedom, I understand social conditions of such a kind that the expression of opinions and assertions about general and particular matters of knowledge will not involve dangers of serious disadvantages for him who expresses them. This freedom of communication is indispensable for the development and extension of scientific knowledge, a consideration of much practical importance. In the first instance it must be guaranteed by law. But laws alone cannot secure freedom of expression, in order that every man may present his views without penalty, there must be a spirit of tolerance in the entire population. Such an ideal of external liberty can never be fully attained, but must be sought unremittingly if scientific thought, and philosophical and creative thinking in general are to be advanced as far as possible."

"If the second goal, that is, the possibility of the spiritual development of all individuals is to be secured, a second kind of outward freedom is necessary. Man should not have to work for the achievement of the necessities of life to such an extent that he has neither time not strength for personal activities. Without this second kind of outward liberty, freedom of expression is useless for him. Advances in technology would provide the possibility of this kind of freedom if the problem of a reasonable division of labor were solved."

"The development of science and of the creative activities of the spirit in general requires still another kind of freedom. It is this freedom of the spirit which consists in the independence of thought from un-philosophical routinizing and habit in general. This inward freedom is the infrequent gift of nature and worthy objective for the individual. Yet the community can do much to further this achievement, too, at least by not interfering in its development. Thus schools may interfere with the development of inward freedom through authoritarian influences and through imposing on young people an excessive spiritual burden, on the other hand, schools may favor such freedom by encouraging independent thought. Only if outward and inner freedom are constantly and consciously pursued is there a possibility of spiritual development and perfection and thus of improving man's outward and inner life."

 

"On Freedom" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

The second component of the world religion I offer is the common morality of humanitarianism, as a minimal social fabric, a prerequisite for maintaining order and social discipline within world society. Morality has assumed various disguises of altruism throughout the world, the tool of the various forms of authoritarian power structures, and has been confined to limited arenas of human activity in context to the whole of humanity. Morality is the basis of social cohesion. It is the only beneficial and most widespread influence, next to prejudice and cultivated collective ignorance, religions have yet achieved. I believe the concept of social morality must be of necessity be minimized to avoid its extension to interference in the free and natural development of the individual. It means a minimum of social morality in full context to the whole of humanity, assuring a scope of humility which selfish ego-centrism tends to obscure, allowing a maximization of individual valuation in context to the immediate lifestyles, insuring freedom of communication and faith between all people. The socialization of the individual stems pathologically from the natural normative process, substituting for productive creativity unproductive conformity. An in-depth comprehensive survey of the many religions of civilization might reveal a different set of common fundamental moral precepts in regard to humanitarianism which if tempered to the pathos of modern technological civilization would forge a sense of humanitarian moral justice acceptable to any sane individual.

 

"When we survey our lives and endeavors we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires is bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that our whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produce, wear clothes that others have made, live in houses that others have built. The greater part of our knowledge and beliefs have been communicated to us by other people through the medium of a language which others have created. Without language our mental capacities would be poor indeed, comparable to those of the higher animals: we have therefore to admit that we owe our principal advantage over the beasts to the fact of living in human society. The individual, if left alone from birth, would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly conceive. The individual is what he is and the significance that he has not so much in virtue of his individuality, but rather a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to the grave."

"A man's value to the community depends on how his feelings, thoughts and actions are directed toward promoting the good of his fellows. We call him good or bad according to his attitude, in this respect. It looks at first sight as if our estimate of a man depended entirely on his social qualities."

"And yet such an attitude would be wrong. It can easily be seen that all the valuable achievements, material, spiritual and moral, which we receive from society has been brought about in the source of countless generations by creative individuals. Someone discovered the use of fire, someone the cultivation of edible plants, and someone the steam engine."

"Only the individual can think, and thereby create new values for society, nay, even set up new moral standards to which life of the community conforms. Without creative personalities able to think and judge independently the upward development of society is an unthinkable as the development of the individual personality without the nourishing soil of the community."

"The health of society thus depends as much on the independence of the individuals composing it as on their close social cohesion. It has been rightly said that the very basis of Greco-European-American culture and in particular of its brilliant flowering in the Italian Renaissance which put an end to the stagnation of medieval Europe, has been the liberation and comparative isolation of the individual."

 

"Society and Personality" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

The third alternative component of a world religion is the personalized dogma of individuality. It is not an illusory fantasy of the past authoritarian religions, based on collective belief and assuring collective obedience, as a compensatory mechanism for physical and spiritual deprivations. In a world of progressive evolution these past dogmatic functions will become unnecessary to the spiritual satisfaction of the individual's life. It is a revolutionary dogma in the sense that individual rebellion against the authoritarian power structures will become collectively realized in dogmatic tradition of individualism. Such a dogma might be interpreted differently by the individual in accordance to personalized and highly distinctive sense of life. As a collective dogma, it will assume many unique and different individualized forms of expression, experienced by the person not as a fantasy but as a reality. In terms of dogma revolution will become permanently stabilized and will remain continuous as a permanent part of the future world civilization. In the highly individualized expressions the dogma will be concerned with the value of self fulfillment as a right and a responsibility of the individual, as distinct from basic materialism, selfish ego centrism and selfless altruism, which are nothing more than the various compensatory mechanism reflecting conformity to authoritarian power structures. It will represent the heart of the religion, the spirit of dissent and the importance of individual existence in continuous resistance to the formation of any dehumanizing power structures.

The fourth component is the ritualization of creative living. In the world of increasingly destabilizing changes, the giving of oneself to humanity in the form of living creatively, of seeking the inspirational examples from day to day living as expressed through all mediums of communication, must become ritualized into the form of self discipline and freedom within the individual's lifestyle. Creativity is the only healthy ritualism possible in human society, most other manifestations of ritual are the pathologized compensatory mechanism to the inevitability of change and restriction of growth. As past oriented perserveration is an unproductive manner of confronting the on flow of future ward events, rational creativity is the only productive mechanism with which a person may integrate change into his existence. All the manifestations of social shock, withdrawal, nonalignment, reaction, instead of "nonconformity" represent not only directly the problem of too fast change in the acceleration of technological civilization but is directly related to the failure of humanity and the individual in normative integration involving natural human creativity and to the predominance of inherently authoritarian predisposition of inter-human relationships. Too fast change or too slow, at the perceptual, conceptualized normative levels of functioning result in too great or too little influx of datum which may overload or stifle the functioning capacity of the individual and result in pathological development. The primary sources of this influence are direct and indirect social ties, forced upon the individual in an unrelenting fashion, from being too close to too many other people, or their environmental influences, or at too extended a period of duration. Man's integrating mechanism follows a cyclical process of intake, rumination and decision making in a more or less random or free flowing process. Social influences compensate for and pathologize the spontaneous normative growth of the individual. Sleep and dreaming, a form of rest, plays an important role in the integration process at a subconscious level.

Yet the integrating mechanisms must also function at the conscious level in the form of meditation, of being alone in solitude, of periodic rest and recreation. Man must consciously integrate as well in order to achieve healthy development. Finally he must be capable of expressing or realizing his integrations in a continuous fashion. It is not the matter of a ritual of the expression of others such as an art festival, even though this may serve an important function in the process, it is rather secondary to the primary function of expressing oneself. The human is first a lone individual, and is only secondarily and of necessity a social animal. It is a fact of human nature often neglected. Individualism is not a matter of nonconformity. It is question of to whom and to what to conform, hopefully to one's own inner source of well being, the self. The cult of deliberate nonconformity is but the hypocritical social reaction to the boredom of social conformity. One day we might be able to integrate the individual social dichotomy, the same as transcending the selfless-selfish dichotomy to become a transcendent from of human being as a member of world wide human society.

 

Consideration of the possibilities of a world religion leads directly to the formulation of the possibilities on the nature of world social organization. Historically, with the benefits of technological progress, human social organization has extended and grown to ever increasing levels of complexity and magnitude. Yet social organization remains to a predominant extent suffering from a similar pathological development as has affected the other aspects of civilization. Social ties of responsibility remain predominantly fear motivated, giving rise to the solidification of authoritarian power structures, fostering the persistence of social prejudices, ignorance and counter productive waste in context to the total development of the human race. It is with the intention of eliminating dehumanizing social distinctions, ignorance and prejudices and of transforming fear motivated interrelationships into trust oriented ties that the following generalized perspectives are offers as alternative minimum prerequisites for the establishment of a healthy world society.

The first alternative as a basis for world society is the culture of sexual liberation. The basis of social organization is its cultural development. Culture here implies the most basic functions of social organization, that of serving the individual and of providing the means of propagation through sexual regeneration. All other meanings are, for this instance, incidental and supplementary to these two primary functions. Human culture is the same as all other cultures of different biological species. All human subcultures, despite the manifold diversity, have the same characteristics founded in sexual regeneration and the serving of individual needs. It is precisely this universal similarities between all cultures which must serve as a part of the foundation of world society. Anachronistic sexual taboos which serve to frustrate the individual's natural sexual drives persist in even the most modern progressive cultures of today, while the sexual drives for the individual remains the strongest source of adaptive motivation. Liberation from traditional sexual repressions and misconceptions will not subvert the healthy creative drives of the individual, but will only augment them. It is the pathologizing of the natural sexual drives which has served as a foundation for the pathological development and persistence of authoritarian power structures in modern society. The continued frustration is perhaps the greatest and least acknowledged social injustice, when its satisfaction and free development could serve as the key focal point in development of civilization. Society must best serve the individual by providing him with that sexual liberation which tradition has restricted, and denied him in the forms of institutionalized marriage, in the tradition of celibacy, in the prohibition and persecution of prostitution and pornography. It must be able to tolerate expressions of all non-harmful forms of sexual relationships between people. Society must close the gap between the forward eye of the law in some aspects of sexual liberation and the obsolescent sense of social justice and morality in the persecution of ancient social practices such as prostitution.

As self styled rebels against age old sexual repression, the modern heroes of sexual freedom have failed in their response to prohibition by making the sexual issue a very superfluous, undignified and unimportant one. By revealing extreme forms of perversion to public attention through mass media they have made of sex a public recreation as any other sport, failing to emphasize the very intimate, dignified and important nature to which healthy individuals attach sexual satisfaction. Mass sexploitation making a fast buck from the frustrated and only vicariously satisfied desires of individuals, it is not the true advocation of sexual liberation: in the long run it is an antagonist to this cause. By divorcing sexuality from the emotion of love, in all its meanings, by the socialization in their modern sense of sexual freedom, they have achieved not a true culture of sexual liberation, but rather a flippant and over glorified ritual of enforcing cultural sterility. Sex with strangers and contraceptives are the unidentified idol of worship. Sexual deviation becomes preferable to natural sexual relationships. Fantasy replaces reality and sexual "freedom" becomes pathologized in the opposite sense of extreme reaction to sexual repression.

Popular sexual media glorifies the importance and beauty of sex, yet they overdo it in their competitive efforts at money making. In the final judgment they actually make of sex a trivial affair. They stress the deviate and orgiastic social extremes while tending to neglect the normal and more natural aspects. It may well be that individuals come from orgiastic sexual encounters with comparative strangers with a greater amount of feelings of loss and pathologization, more emotionally unstable and sexually unfulfilled than with more normalized and less sexually oriented relationships. While being important, the importance of sex must not be over stressed to the exclusion of other fulfilling and important aspects of healthy living. We must be careful that sexual liberation is not just over popularization and sexual exploitation. A minimal amount of sexual repression through self abnegation might even be essential to ensure the necessary productive sublimation of "creative" aggression and energy to other creative endeavors and the propagation of other cultural aspects of civilization. While at once excludes pathological promiscuity, open and honest sexual relationships does not necessarily preclude sexual self discipline.

By institutionalizing sex it is no wonder that modern post industrial societies achieve zero or sub-zero population growth, while the pre-industrialized agricultural societies attain an exponential growth rate. The danger signal of the reverse of population growth must be recognized--that is a trending toward cultural stagnation and eventual extinction. Societies proclaiming the virtue of zero population growth in the midst of an exponentially expanding human race must inevitably yield their domains either forcibly or more preferably peacefully to the hungry and ambitious masses of the poor and the uneducated. It is a wise choice that even in its exalted state of advanced civilization the United States is continuing an open door policy to the disadvantaged of the world. New blood is vitality to the old. It is wise to remember this point of the future, just as sexual regeneration is natural, growth and extension of human culture and civilization is healthy. People must eventually inhabit the vast regions of space and the as yet undeveloped and uninhabited regions of the earth and that in order to provide impetus and the necessary human resources for this manifest destiny of the human race, potentially unlimited human population growth must occur and to this end zero population growth is counter productive.

The other needs of the individual which society must fulfill include open and intimate interpersonal relationships with a broad variety of personality types who fulfill specific social functions and roles, the need for familial and communal relationships, the need for healthy life styles and productively cultivated creativity. Living must not be a mere by product of modern society, it must be both its driving impetus and its highest objective. This means healthy living in all the meanings implied by the term "health". Pathologized living is not living at all but merely dying. Adjusting the social system around the characteristics of the individual human to serve his private needs, instead of adjusting the individual human to conformity with the system, inspiring him to reciprocate the kindness in living productively and constructively for his culture. Society and socialization is a natural and necessary phenomenon for the development of cultural wealth and health, yet it easily stagnated and pathologizes into authoritarian power structures.

The prevailing social prejudices between male and female, the fundamental extremes of species procreativity, serve as sources for more complex social, racial and cultural prejudices. It is in the resolution of this most basic prejudice that may well be fond the key to solving the seemingly more urgent and threatening problems arising from social ignorance. Modern society remains organized around the authority figure of the male. The prejudicial restriction against the female in culture reveals itself in many subtle manners. History has by far predominantly been written for and by the male. The continued persistence of this fundamental authoritarian power structure in the dace of humanity's technological evolution could very well result in social stagnation. A reversal of roles might even be a more preferable alternative. The traditionally accepted roles of male and female must be critically reexamined in all of its manifestations, while a healthy understanding and respect for the very most basic differences in natural roles of male in cultural regeneration must be cultivated. The liberation of the female must be achieved in every aspect of social life, to elevate her status to that of equality with a male. At the same time, the male must also be liberated from often unrecognized "traditional" roles into which he has been cast by society. There is much in the popular women's liberation movement that implies advantage without responsibility. Many is it who seek in social reform superior personal advantage without the often overpowering burden of social responsibilities such reforms might entail. In many ways the traditional roles of the female, while being overly restrictive and inhibitory to personal fulfillment, at the same time were protective and advantageous to the female. It may well be argued that "traditionally" the male, and not the female, has been the most disadvantaged, having to earn a living to support a wife and family, becoming of necessity a slave to the system. Men have predominantly been the occupants of such hardship institutions has the military, prisons, and skid row. There is much to be said for the ideal of male liberation. Whatever the case may be, the important conclusion is that a working compromise relationship must be attained to create a truly liberated culture in which the individual, either male or female, may maximize their potential and freedom of living.

Examination of what kind of role liberation of sexual culture might play in world society leads to a consideration to a second precondition to be achieved before a healthy world society might predominate--that is the condition of a homogenous human race. The most fundamental sexual prejudices and mores of contemporary civilization give impetus indirectly to a much more baneful and influent host of deep seated cultural, racial, regional and national prejudices and restrictions. A homogenous human race does not necessarily mean a perfect blend of cream colored humanity of the same exact genotype but is rather the creation of an open and unrestricted world wide gene pool, transcending arbitrary national boundaries and customs to include every member of the human race and to encourage within this pool completely unrestricted acceptance and genetic integration of all races and peoples. It will be a time when a black man may look at the white man and see only another human being. Under such a program, the far future human race may be an almost complete mixture of genetic traits within the individual, with the emergence of new, widely varied character traits hitherto unknown and with the emergence of a whole new breed of world humanity.

Racial integration will reach much more advanced levels of cultural expression in the emergence of new aesthetic values and other "cultural" phenomenon, as the distinguishing cultural idioms of expression become accepted and gradually integrated as completely new forms. The most malignant social manifestation which has many profound political reverberations is the persistence of divisive nationalism which serves to create racial, social, and cultural differences between different regions and peoples to the inhibition of further worldwide social integration. The only way to achieve world society is the is the transcendence of this nationalism the elimination of national privilege based on citizenship and the creation of world citizenry with a common racial, cultural and social tradition and with common inalienable human rights and citizenship privileges.

The third precondition to the stabilization of a world society concerns the most subtle and complex manifestations of social prejudices in the form of class distinction, within the infrastructure of social organization. The creation of a single heterogeneous world class of humanity must be striven for, a world society in which the social stratification based on birth, wealth, profession or privilege is minimized in all its deepest aspects, and men are no longer judged as captains, rich men, poor men, politicians or sanitary technicians, but are judged only as whole human beings in the total scope of the individual's life. This has been the goal of utopian endeavors since the beginning of civilization--making all people equal in social status though individually unique and distinctive. No only economic reorganization will accomplish this goal. Many other social manifestations of class distinction must be recognized and dealt with outside the purely economic sphere of social activity. It is the whole impetus of social reform to aim toward the creation of utopia through every possible avenue.

While economic reorganization and reconstruction of the social structure remains the crux of the problem of class differences, altering the social conscience of the individual is the ultimate goal. It is the transcendence of this conscience from the level of quantitatively based materialism as the objective criteria of success to a more qualitative valuation of the term of success based on the fulfillment of a person's "spirituality"--to the more subjective criteria of a person's productive creativity in whatever direction chosen. It is when people are no longer to be judged socially by the title or degree they hold, by the function they do or what they did in the past, or by the material wealth or social renown they have, but by what they are as individual humans, in sum total, by what they can be and just simply as being human. Once the value system of the individual has been reformed material reevaluation and economic reorganization of the social structure will automatically follow. The accomplishment of this goal has profound legal implications for perhaps the epitome of social distinction is that a person be judged according to the offense he has committed, as merely a "criminal" and punished in accordance with the law, but he will be treated first as a human, only secondly as an offender and he will be treated as such remembering the proverb "to err is human, but to forgive divine". Instead of being counter productively punished for mistakes, the criminal must be reformed and made into a productive, creative being capable of constructively paying for his mistakes of the past. Yet this does not mean so liberalizing the law or erasing the administration of punitive justice as to make the law no longer credible as a deterrent to crime, especially brutal and vicious crimes, and no longer productive of the members of the society from criminal victimization such that social order disintegrates. Prison reform is one necessary step toward the realization of utopia. It is a profound testament to the moral condition of our world society, of social health, that at the sacrifice of proper care for the poor, incapable and disadvantaged, we predominantly and consistently spend social funds to equip excessive armed forces and to stockpiling greater amounts of potential mass destruction while ignoring and neglecting the plight and suffering of other people with but superficial, hypocritical and fleeting attention.

The only tool available to world society for inculcating within the individual the healthy social conscience and value system which would provide the impetus needed to social integration and reform and to eliminate social prejudice and ignorance is education. The goal of education is to reform the individual, yet education, as an institutionalized part of the greater social organization, suffers limitations today generally arising from the common source of pathologized social developments, that of the predominance of authoritarian power structures. These limitations must be recognized and transcended before social reform on world wide scale can be effected.. the inspirational educational system is offered as an alternative prerequisite to the foundation of world society.

Primarily because the responsibility for individual education has been alienated and divorced from the concept of self education and has become socialized under political authorities who thus allocate funds and indicate the general direction which "public" education should follow, education has been generally oriented toward reinforcing the primary socialization process of the home, enforcing conformity to social conventions of behavior, values and expectations, at the expense of cultivating creative productivity and independent thought by the individual.

It is due to control over education exerted by parties interested in power and material gain and to their desire to inculcate conformity by the individual to established and convenient conventions of behavior, that the general orientation of education has been in the direction of teaching of specialized knowledge which is often forced unwillingly upon an individual's development but proves useless to a person in later life. It is important to realize the subtle degree to which this divisive tendency toward specialization has been developed in education. In general education itself is specialized into "schools" which are at the same time secularized from the influence of "spiritual" vales and from the other aspects of an individual's life. Schools themselves are similarly divided into grade levels and classes, while learning becomes divided into progressively specialized fields of knowledge. Mass production techniques of "social" education substitute natural individual self educational growth. Education is inherently a full time, omni directional process of self development occurring within every aspect of a person's life. The differentiation of education from living creates an illusion pattern of passive behavior in which the individual believes that education occurs only in the school machines and that it can only be enforced by the special apparatus of the school, the classroom environment, desks, schoolbooks, and most importantly the necessary direction of the teacher. These have become as much the crutches and hindrances of the individual's education as a means of its realization. It is barely adequate substitution for an individual's own self development--the only true means of education. The public library is the most valuable social institution of education to have been invented and improved upon. The lessons of real life, private research and explanatory endeavor, personalized examples of inspiration provided by intimate contact with other people and through objective means of self expression and creative self development are the best means of education and individual reform which are available to any human. These sources become compromised at an early age by official education.

This criticism of public education is not to denigrate the importance and value of social and technical education as a means of social reform. It is sometimes the only means available and the most common economical compromise to the which the techniques of mass production are necessary. A society which supports a public education system is a much better off than one which does not. The efficacy of public education for social reform, cultural modernization and the evolution of technological civilization is indisputable. It is only to reveal the fact that public education is that by no means perfect and that there is much room for its improvement. Further it is to indicate very generally a possible direction for this improvement. It is founded on the premises that education is primarily oriented around the individual--around self development and self improvement. No amount of socially oriented methods of education can adequately be substituted for this fact. External means of motivation cannot adequately substitute internal means of motivation. Public education is only a secondary means of self reliance, self discipline and self development and not an end in itself. It is to the extent that education exists inspite of the need for self identity, that it becomes a vehicle used primarily for inculcating conformity to conventions of behavior instead of a means for self improvement, and that it is preferred and exclusive method of instruction by the teacher and a means of satisfying needs for personal achievement and authoritarian based motivations for power to control and manipulate others, instead of only a single tool among many for personally inspiring self development, that education fails by becoming an end in itself instead of being only a means to the much more significant end of self education.

The vicarious manner of substitution predominantly found in schools occurs in direct contrast to the only true value and limitation of interpersonal education, that of open communication of objective forms of expression and of setting the example. The importance of this single principle of setting an example in a person's educational development cannot be over stressed. It is only the inspirational means at a society's disposal for motivating in the individual the unrestricted development of his natural potential. All excesses and exercises in force feeding, in negative reinforcement and in repetitious exposition and rote memorization are counter productive to this end. It is the inspirational factor occurring in all walks of life that develops the individual's motivation and leadership potential for independent action in society, as compared to substitutive conformity encouraged and forced upon the individual through socialization process of formal education. Setting the example and nursing the spontaneous development of self discipline while providing unlimited resources for intellectual pursuit, these are the true functions of the teacher--not the enforcing of authoritarian value judgments. This is the role of leadership in education--a role that every individual is responsible for assuming. All specialized forms of learning are secondary and follow naturally.

 

"…The only rational way of educating is to be an example--if one can't help it, a warning example."

 

"Education and Educators" by Albert Einstein.

 

"One by one the brain's alarm clocks and chromosome 'ticker tape' instructions inaugurate use of the child's vast inventory if inter-coordinate capabilities and faculties. The child is in fact taught and cannot be taught by others to inaugurate any of these capabilities. He teaches himself--if given the choice--at the right time."

"…the set of 'alarm clocks' that go off by the time a child is four years old govern 50% of the total capacity of the child to improve its IQ at any later date. If not properly attended to and given the chance to function, despite the brain's alarm clock inauguration of progressive capabilities in those first four years, the brain mechanisms can be frustrated and can shut off the valves of those specific capacities. The capabilities need not necessarily be employed to important degree immediately after inception but must upon inception be put in use and kept in use as active tools in the human coordinating capability else they will squelch themselves, that is 'shut themselves off' not necessarily irreparably but usually so."

"The next 30% of the total capability of children to learn has been put into action by the time they are eight. Thus 80% of the total capability to self improve IQ capability thereafter has been put in operation by eight. By age thirteen 92% of the total capability has been self started into usability. Between the years thirteen and seventeen the final 8% of the total capacity to coordinate and apprehend, to comprehend and teleologically employ input data has been brought into operation. From seventeen on, the most young people can possibly do is to conserve the 100% capacity to further improve their IQ we'll take those figures and plot a curve of the rate of inauguration of the capacity to learn starting the curve at zero years and plotting 50% of the capacity by four, another 30% by eight, another 12% by thirteen and the final 8% by seventeen. Next we plot the curve of state and federal funds in aid of education as applied at those same age levels. We find that somewhere around three billion federal and state dollars a year are applied to the 'higher education' period from seventeen years onward, where approximately no government dollars are applied to help the birth to eight years period when 80% of the critical educational capacity is being established which if not properly set in use and kept in use will be closed off…"

 

"Utopia or Oblivion: The Prospects for Humanity" by R. Buckminster Fuller.

 

"It is not enough to teach a man a specialty. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality. It is essential that the student acquire an understanding of and a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the beautiful and of the morally good. Otherwise, he with his specialized knowledge more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions and their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to individual fellow men and to the community.

Those precious changes are conveyed to the younger generation through personal contact with those who teach, not or at least not in the main through textbooks. It is this that primarily constitutes and preserves culture. This is what I have in mind when I recommend the 'humanities' as important, not just dry specialized knowledge in the fields of history and philosophy.

Overemphasis on the competitive system and premature specialization on the group of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included.

It is also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by over burdening him with too much and with too varied subjects (point system). Over burdening necessarily leads to superficiality. Teaching should be such that what is offered is perceived as a valuable gift and not as a hard duty."

 

"Education For Independent Thought" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein Oct. 5, 1952.

 

The objective ideal of a world society is an open one, one which is open to every and all possibilities of change and realization of individual potentiality, of free interchange of information and ideas, unrestricted by any prejudice or social convention. That is the inherent nature of a true world oriented social organization. As an ideal it will be unattainable due to natural human imperfection and subjective relativity, yet a working relative realization of such a social structure is attainable and must be sought for. The minds of all individuals must be freed of the restrictive social conventions which pervade each person's entire lifestyle in many subtle and subconscious ways. The values, methods of thinking and mannerisms by which people express themselves will take many unpredictable and unconventional styles in such an open atmosphere. Social changes and individual differences will become the conventions instead of the abnormal exceptions. A person in such a society will find unrestricted means of cultivating his own unique humanness by which he can attain self fulfillment. In such an open society the very differences in way people think and act, communicate and socially behave must be transcended through intercultural, interregional and international integration. The common forms of social expression characteristic of any particular subculture of world society automatically precludes world wide social integration. These differences must be transcended. Society must be developed around fulfillment of the needs and the basic human nature of the individual, not around the individual being socialized into the part of conformist to conventional modes of behavior.

One of the most important steps towards creating such an open society as a precondition to world unity is to transcend the language barriers between different cultures and nationalities, which automatically prevent completely open communication and mutual understanding between societies which is so important to world unity. A single common world language needs to be developed and formalized into the standard education of all world citizens to gradually displace the different native languages as the primary means of communication.

Hopefully a bilingual open world society can be attained in which all individuals can communicate together not only in their native tongue but communicate at a mutual level of understanding to any person in any place of the world. Yet there exists not single language today which can be accepted unconditionally by all people of every nation as an official world language. It is within the potential of scientists, artists, humanists and people from every walk of life from every culture throughout the world to join together in a cooperative effort to extract the best, the most common, the easiest to express and comprehend and the most beautiful from each language and to forge an entirely new one to serve as the basis for mutual worldwide communication and understanding.

Educating to develop a healthy understanding and respect for all traditional cultures and to develop a world patterned individual is another important alternative direction of the curriculum of the inspirational education. It will be the artists and scientists of the youth of such an educational system who will successfully integrate modes of expression and communication and lifestyles of a world citizen and a world culture. It will only be when all world citizens can openly communicate and freely respond to one another to the fullest depth of understanding including all subconscious nuances, that any degree of world unity will be attainable. This is the ideal of the open world society.

 

Consideration of alternative preconditions to the formation of world society leads to an investigation of possible economic organization of such a world community which would be fundamental to world unity. There exists simultaneously tremendous differences in the standard of living between third countries and the comparatively high standards of the superpowers and post industrialized nations. Economic wealth and strategy seem to remain with private power of a minority of the world's people. The professed economic philosophies tend to appear unrealistic when measured against the actual operative conditions in which they are said to be applicable. The written standards of what is money and wealth are contradictory to what the real standards actually consist of.

The dichotomy between capitalism and communism is unfounded in reality, neither seems realistic not ideally preferable as general economic strategies but both are only obsolete applications of theory to the real causes of economic modernization of world societies and to the economic integration of world humanity. The central weakness of communist strategy lies in the denial of the reality of individual motivation for material profit which is supplied be a free market and which provides the sustaining impetus behind economic growth and the evolution of technological civilization. The implementation of communist organization automatically precludes certain inalienable human rights--liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It implies ant colony type organization which necessitates individual freedom of choice as expressed materially through economic means being sacrificed to the subordination of state structure. The central philosophical efficacy of communism lies in the acceptance of the need of an economic commonwealth as a means of guaranteeing adequate material advantage of all people as an inherent human right of life. Under communist doctrine no private party may exploit or be exploited by any other private party. Conversely, and paradoxically, this is the central weakness behind the theory of capitalism. Both theories are in actuality complementary to one another. The strength of one is the very weakness of the other. The fundamental erroneous premise underlying the theory of capitalism lies in the belief that the motivation of individual self fulfillment and self improvement which is the source of creative adaptability which gives strength and power to economic growth, arises primarily from economic competition between individuals. The concept of "survival of the fittest" expounded in Darwin's theory of evolution is not correctly extensible nor completely analogous to the situation of inter-human economic functioning. Competition, whatever its form of expression, is an inherently mutually antagonistic relationship and implies destructive interference. Personal development and the motivation for achievement and economic profit is as much if not more dependent on inter-human cooperation than on competition. Competition actually hinders economic growth and realization of economic commonwealth. Even though creativity is a completely individual process of functioning which cannot be adequately transformed in to any socialized means of inter-human organization, individual creativity is actually more dependent on inter-human cooperation, on the free sharing of commonwealth, than on divisive competition. No form of social organization can ever create anything. Only the individual can create. The evolution of technological civilization which is wholly dependent on creativity is not completely analogous to Darwin's theory of biological evolution. Economic growth and greater fulfillment of humanity's commonwealth has occurred rather in spite of either the theory of communism or of capitalism. The realization of this commonwealth has been founded on individual self fulfillment and inter-human cooperation rather than on state enforced social "selflessness" or on aggressive competition. It is today within the means of technological civilization to guarantee the realization of the natural rights of all humans of the world and to provide all human beings of the world all the minimal prerequisites for a healthy and truly wealthy existence. But first we must give up our unrealistic economic dogmas we maintain so preciously.

Before an objective consideration of possible economic foundations for world unity can be accomplished, one must eliminate from the mind all preconceived prejudices arising from the capitalist communist dichotomy. Instead of a philosophical, theoretical, strategic and quasi-religious dichotomization of the two opposing economic doctrines, there must be a successful integration to achieve a new form as yet expressed. Neither communism nor capitalism offers adequate foundations for a world economy which is necessary prerequisite to world unity. Pure capitalism and pure communism, divested of political rhetoric and religious mysticism, are but empty words. New standards of wealth, new means of distribution, material regeneration and monetary circulation, new strategies for economic growth founded on reality and not on ideology, that are generally applicable to the conditions of worldwide organization, must be clarified in the collective strategic mind.

The most fundamental prerequisite for establishing an economic basis for world unity is to either discover a-priori or to establish arbitrarily a definitive standard of wealth, which is the ultimate end of all economic activity. Wealth is essentially a relativistic human valuation. To whatever objective form that human valuation is arbitrarily attached as to food, material possession, natural resources, gold, money, wisdom or truth--wealth will always remain in the degree of common inter-human objective importance attached to it. Wealth is created by exchange of objectified valuation between people. Here is at once a relativistic and a universally applicable standard of human wealth. All humans share certain common valuations which is to some degree physical and nonphysical health and well-being. Wealth is ultimately the human valuation of life itself divested of all externalized substitutes. This is very common human valuation is essentially the same fundamental normative functioning of the human mind, which is common to all normally healthy people, and that has served throughout this chapter as the fundamental spirit underlying world unity. This is the essential standard of real wealth which is applicable to all humans and which will serve as the economic basis of world unity. It is ultimately a measureless, priceless, qualitative, purely subjective standard which is extremely relative to individual expression. True wealth is the value of being human.

 

"The true value of a human being is determined primarily by the measure and sense in which he has attained liberation from the self."

 

"The True Value of a Human Being" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

"I am absolutely convinced that no wealth in the world can help humanity forward, even in the hands of the most devoted worker in this cause. The example of great and pure individuals is the only thing that can lead us to noble thoughts and deeds. Money only appeals to selfishness and irresistibly invites abuse.

Can anyone imagine Moses, Jesus or Gandhi armed with the money bags of Carnegie?"

 

"On Wealth" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

"The ultimate goal of economic development is to improve the well being of people. The building of factories, the terracing of land and the training of engineers are but means toward that end, enhancing the reputation or wealth of political leaders and increasing the prestige or power of nation states are irrelevant. Improving the health of people is fundamental to improving their well being. This being so, it is important to know what "health" means. Health has long been defined by the 155 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The ultimate goal of development can therefore be said to be health, in this broad sense, for all the people of the world. It is as simple as that--and as complex.

 

"People" in Scientific American Sept. 1980 by Halfdan Mahler.

 

The ultimate wealth relative to common humanity is individual valuation which is able to be able to creatively shared with other human. This is the fundamental basis of world wide economic unity. If the leaders of the world and the people in general could instantaneously realize this single concept and its importance, then in only a short period of economic reorganization all people could be economically wealthy as well as healthy.

What are the externalized manifestations of this essential standard of real wealth which is applicable to the whole of humanity? What are the prevalent objects humanity seems to substitute for this standard as important? Education, financial security, social appearances and egocentric materialism. There is an overwhelming prevalence of importance attached to military "defense" which takes the form in peacetime of nonproductive weaponry and material and wasted energy and the support of nonfunctional and unproductive human resources all of which in wartime becomes counter productive and destructive to economic growth. It is no wonder that economic depression is the inevitable result of war, and that the most important result of long term military buildup and peacetime preparation for war is economic stagnation and the erosion of real wealth eventuating in dehumanization. Many of the things humans value as standards of wealth have been socially inculcated as unquestioned conventions and are not innately, naturally inspiring to the human except to the pathologically motivated. Egocentric materialism and over consumption which is so prevalent a sign of today's wealth is nothing but a compensatory mechanism subconsciously employed to effect conformity and temporary satisfaction by the manipulators of the pathological social development which infects every other aspect of human society--a substitute process in which wealth assumes a nonproductive, no growth inertia in the fundamental social valuations of humanity. Wealth is essentially a qualitative human valuation. Ultimately all quantitative physical expressions are substitutes for real wealth which society has inculcated into the individual and collective mind to preserve and propagate the development of authoritarian power structures. This has been the shortcoming of all economic strategies when operationally applied to the human situation. The only extent of their success has been the realization of real wealth in spite of their operating doctrines. They were founded on the premise that there was not enough wealth to go around, so that all humans might be wealthy and not just a few selfish haves with a majority if have-nots. Materialism is the rich man's disease and the poor man's grand illusion. Happiness, the object of human valuation is the potential wealth of every human. Economics has followed Malthusian and Marxian philosophy. They are both distorted and erroneous extensions and responses to Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest--one which is based on competitive evolution and the other on cooperative evolution, applied mistakenly to the sphere of human economics. It has led to the practice prevalent in every economic system of dehumanizing competition, substitution of the false material standards for real wealth, the parasitic survival of one man from the exploitation of the lives of others, the cultivation of ignorance and prejudice which inhibits constructive change, the substitution of the essential individual spirit if initiative and creativity with suffocating bureaucracy and repressive social organization and the oppression and failure of realization of fundamental human rights. It is a central philosophical dilemma not peculiar to the economic sphere of human activity, but universally applicable to all spheres of human behavior, affecting both capitalist and communist doctrines of faith.

What objective manifestations might serve as adequate translations of real wealth and as adequate foundations for a world economy? The wealth of life, not death. The wealth of productive growth not unproductive stagnation and economic inertia to change. The wealth accruing from the evolution of technological civilization and the common welfare of the whole of humanity and not the parasitic and competitive enterprising of one human community at the sacrifice of the welfare of the other communities. Economic cooperation and not competition, preserving the spirit of individual human creativity and inspiration of action and not the bureaucratization of human spirit into nonexistent super human ideologies and grand illusions fostered by authoritarian power structures. The ultimate healthy social manifestation of wealth lies in the educational self improvement of the individual.

 

"…The Chronofile disclosed a technological environment regenerated acceleration of technical evolution. This concept of accelerating acceleration which had been discovered by Galileo and was later identified with gravity by Newton had not been conceived as accelerating social evolution…The Chronofile also discovered a tend of comprehensive ephemeralization i.e. the doing of ever more with ever less, per given resource units of pounds, time and energy. Ephemeralization was vastly augmenting the standards of living of ever increasing numbers but only inadvertently as fall out from the defense subsidized preoccupation of science with a weaponry supporting industrialization."

"Ephemeralization was also accelerated by ever increasing quantities of invisible energy events of the universe, detoured by human intellect from their previously only cosmically flowing patterns to flow through engineered channels and impinge upon intellect inverted levers and thereby to vastly augment the work accomplished by mankind's muscles in rearranging the energetic events to more effectively sustain the metabolic regeneration of human life."

"Ephemeralization which constantly does more with visibly less, as does, for instance, the one quarter ton communication satellite out perform 150,000 tons of transoceanic cables has not yet been formally isolated, recognized and discussed in print as such by any economists. Until economists recognize it ephemeralization cannot be popularly comprehended and be adopted in public policy formulations."

"However as the years have gone by the combined effects of accelerating acceleration and ephemeralization accounts primarily for the technical and economic augmentation which are now overwhelming man, trying to make him a success in universe despite his age old Malthus supported conviction that humanity, regardless of its composite significance and fate, is with but few exceptions, destined to demonstrate personal economic failure and premature death. Public policy the world around us as yet assumes that Malthus was right-ergo, the vital necessity of defense in view of the inexorability of the next Great War…"

"Throughout the twentieth century, therefore, the metals mined or unmined and materials in general have continually decreased in ration to each individual. At this moment the cumulative total of metals mined and refined by man throughout history is wholly employed in machined or structures which, operating at full design limit capacity can successfully support only 44% of living humanity. Therefore no exclusively political act of any political system can make the world's resources take care of more than 44% of humanity. But the overall mechanical efficiency of the extant machinery and structures is only 4%. An overall efficiency of 20% is engineeringly feasible at present. It could go to 80% someday. A design science revolution could solve the problem.

 

"Utopia or Oblivion: The Prospects for Humanity" by R. Buckminster Fuller.

 

An alternative world economy resembles a decentralized form of socialism in which the economic system is self adjusting at the grass roots and individual level, at the level where economic needs are felt locally and most immediately, providing a minimum achievable standard of living for all people. This minimum achievable standard represents the invisible commonwealth realistically achievable for all humanity today. It is the highest level of true socialism justifiably achievable today, and the lowest level at which capitalistic free enterprises is justifiably allowable. It entails the providing of as much nutrition as possible to all world citizens, the minimum required health care which includes socialized medicine, psycho therapy and social programs of health, youth education, police and fire protection, a socialized industrial infrastructure including socialized communication networks, socialized transportation and energy transmission networks, socialized housing, minimum services industry including clothing, entertainment, recreation and minimum allowance of welfare. Finally it is within the providing of each of these services to the individual that adequate minimum employment, adequately managed and comprehensively coordinated to provide work for all individuals within the social welfare system. These basic prerequisites of modern living provide for the fundamental human rights and security of each individual within context of a global economic system.

Above this minimum level of commonwealth is a intermediate level within which the individual may find adequate profit incentive to satisfy personal material goals and with which to express his creativity which is so essential to the vitality of the economic system, in the individual pursuit of happiness. This medium field of enterprise is virtually open ended and uncontrolled centrally, in which the individual may ply his free time and energy to achieve personal profit in free unrestricted capitalistic enterprise and contribute indirectly to the growth of the invisible commonwealth. Capitalism and socialism may coexist and co-function interdependently with the same economic system, on both a cooperative and a competitive basis.

Above this intermediate level of capitalistic initiative exists of necessity a maximum level at which capitalism is allowed to occur justifiably, which is essentially reducible to the amount of social justice and political control necessary for the preservation of human rights. This is the upper allowable level at which a human being's survival is dependent on the efforts and survival of fellow humans--the level at which one person's existence may be at the sacrifice of many others. Beyond this level minimum government centralism is applicable to retain control of law and social order. This is the level at which world economy intertwines with world politics, at which governmental centralism and all its ill side effects are required by uncontrollable extenuating circumstances. Thus upper level of economic centralism consists of government taxation of private enterprise and restrictions--definable in terms of supra-national governmental organization, national and state political organization, interventionary police forces, international peace forces and the minimum social economy maintained through taxation. Hopefully this level can become a receding requirement in a conscious effort at minimizing its power and importance to the maintenance of the health of world economy. As world unity increases through economic integration and progress, the need for this upper level will gradually disappear.

 

Paradoxically the self accelerating doing more with less invention revolution has been generated thus far almost exclusively by the technology of the world's weaponry race, whose ultimate objective has always been to deliver the greatest blows the furthest, most accurately and most swiftly with the least effort. Evolution seems intent upon making man a success despite his negative fixations. The doing more with less economic success of 40% of humanity, accomplished in only half a century cannot be attributed to any political doctrine. Technology has flourished equally under exactly opposed ideologies.

Take away the energy distributing networks and the industrial machinery from America, Russia and all the world's industrialized countries, and within six months more than two billion swiftly and painfully deteriorating people will starve to death. Take away all the world's politicians, all the ideologies and their professional protagonists, from those same countries and send them off on a rocket trip around the sun and leave all the countries their present energy networks, industrial machinery, routine production and distribution personnel, and no more humans will starve nor be afflicted in health than at present.

Fortunately, the do more with less invention initiative does not derive from political debate, bureaucratic licensing or private economic patronage. The license comes from the blue sky of the inventor's intellect. No one licensed the inventive man to invent those world transforming and world shrinking developments. Herein lies the unexpectedly swift effectiveness of the invisibly generated and inexorable design-science revolution. Politics is inherently only an accessory after the fact of the design-science revolution. Despite this historically demonstrable fact, world society as yet persists in looking exclusively to its politicians and their ideologies for world problem solving.

 

We have said we will take all the people who are unemployed because their machines have become automated and teach them a new skill relating to another machine. But soon the advancing state of automation will be such that by the time they have learned to operate a new machine, that one will have been automated too. They will simply stay in school studying how to operate obsolete tools. First we must reorient our eons long reflex conditioning. It is not strange that we are so negative minded regarding man's potential behavior on earth. He has had, up to this century, a 1 in 100 chance of economic success. It is logical that we think of unemployment as a negative rather than realizing that it is signaling that society now has the ability to free people from the necessity of demonstrating their right to live by gaining and holding unemployment.

The kind of wealth we are actually dealing with, industrial wealth has nothing to do with old monetary gold, whose retention in balance of trade accounting is a mark of innocence of society and an economic expansion cancer. Our present real wealth is, exclusively the tool or organized capability to take energies of the universe, which are transforming their patternings of various ways as yet uncontrolled by man and shunt them through channels onto the ends of circularly arranged levers which man invents so that the energy turn wheels and shafts to do all the work. In doing the foregoing we're taking nothing from the energy capital of the universe. The physicists make it clear that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. You can't exhaust that kind of wealth. It is not physically exhaustible. And in fact, our relationship to the energy wealth in an intellectual one. It says that everytime we make an experiment with physical-energy wealth we learn more. Even when we only learn that something we thought might work won't work, that’s learning more. Everytime we make an experiment we learn more, we can't learn less. Because universal energy is inexhaustible and our intellectual advantage only gains, our wealth is continually gaining. We're continually upping the relative metabolic advantage of man in the universe.

 

Why nonproductive unemployment? It is at once a visible harm to the productivity and wealth of society as far as it means nonproductive waste of human potential, a burden to the economy and poverty for a sizable segment of the human population but at the same time it can be a hidden asset to the effect of ephemeralization and one of its by-products. It is a sign of industrialization which produces more for less human involvement. It is a manifestation of the negative fixation of contemporary economic organizational systems, subsisting as it is under the practice of authoritarian power structures, which cannot adequately compensate for the side effects of industrial ephemeralization, by re-employing that human capital for further productive growth. It is a failure to reassess old standards to compensate for increased wealth, to employ displaced workers and provide them re-employment and income. Here is an alternative, reverse the counter productive inflationary processes of the contemporary over restricted no growth orientation of organizational systems, to a healthy growth oriented deflationary process in which a monetary unity of exchange, a worldwide value so that the individual can buy more instead of less per unit. It is an organizational system of decentralized socialism based on the sharing of the invisible commonwealth and on mutual cooperation instead of on antagonistic competition.

This means the reassessment of the meaning of private ownership in context to the world economy. Private ownership of material wealth is defined by its natural limits to the individual's needs and the maximum synthetic limits of centralism--when one person's wealth becomes dependent upon the productive efforts of others. Providing the individual adequately his minimum natural necessities of living means to discover the meaning of private ownership. Or is the freedom and independence from the existence of others and the other is autonomy in his immediate physical environment which includes a minimum area and an amount of physical comforts and tool extensions the individual may call his own. This is the physical standard of the invisible commonwealth applicable to all of humanity and determines the maximum level at which decentralized socialism is applicable. The other limit is the unjust private ownership of means of production contributing indirectly to the growth of the invisible commonwealth. This private ownership of the industrial means of production of commonwealth is the upper definable limit of private ownership, above which, due to restriction by authoritarian power structures and negativistic fixations on obsolete modes of practice hinders industrial ephemeralization. It is the economic centralism of private ownership.

It is possible to fashion the economic organization of means of production to fit the rate of industrial growth and adequately compensate for the increased invisible commonwealth, providing a welfare of private ownership and a minimum decreasing degree of productive employment for all employable members of the system. Minimizing decentralized social labor of private wealth achievable is to allow fullest freedom and autonomy of the individual in the hope that his future efforts will provide even more productive employment to his own people. This is the importance of the benefits of consumption of the products of industry, to provide impetus for further production to enable economic growth and industrial emphemeralization.

What changes in the personal economic values are called for? As far as the work ethic, reassessment of the individual in the productive process is in order. The fact that a human may not be employed as a cog in industrial production or in organizational network most of his waking life is not as undesirable as it may seem to be. Its possible undesirability is a negative fixation of past oriented social values. A human is not a machine. The minimization of necessary human employment in the industrial process of a dehumanizing industrial tool environment and an equal adequate revision of labor requirements in the productive process provides the individual with much free time and personal autonomy to develop his personality, he may spend his private wealth as an egocentric over consumer of material products of industry, but this is but another manifestation of itself if the negativistic fixation and dehumanizing organizational system. The human may seek to make of his free time and autonomy as inspirational-educational-qualitative self-developmental lifestyle, oriented around a professionalized craft tool environment from which his intellectual development and creative endeavors will indirectly provide impetus to the industrial ephemeralization process. Within such a personalized self disciplined environment adequate profit incentive may be found to provide for a capitalistic superstructure to the social economic foundation which is so vital to economic growth. It is only from this intensely personalized private craft tool environment that the ephemeralization of commonwealth can occur unhindered. It is the highest goal of the individual alone and for all humanity. There is another negativistic social economic value besides the work ethic, that the socialized system of economics in naturally inefficient and cost maximizing and profit minimizing compared to private enterprise which is ever more efficient and cost minimizing to maximize profits. This is the ethic of the incentive of private ownership. The individual is not a completely efficient, errorless, and machinelike automaton, this is an irrational belief. It is a paradox that in his lazy inefficiency is found his natural compensatory mechanism toward his environment that is the indefinable source of human creativity and the mother of invention. His efficiency will naturally improve in an inspirationally professionalized craft tool environment. The relative human inefficiency in a minimized organizational environment is naturally profitable and productive through self discipline. Adequate profit incentive may be incorporated into the decentralized social system to ensure efficient management of the human resource.

What organizational form should be prevalent in a world economy? The traditional bureaucratic form an obsolete manifestation of the authoritarian power structure, one oriented to increasing inefficiency, pathological acquisition of fundamentally unjust power and static changelessness in regard to the external conditions needs to be radically reformed to incorporate change and growth. Two important characteristics of the bureaucratic institutions were the specialized division of labor which made humans nonfunctional beyond a limited capacity, maladaptive to changing environmental situations, and a hierarchical pecking order spotting officialism, resistance to change and promotion of conformity. Government centralism in all its forms, but especially in the military organizations, is the form of bureaucracy most maladaptive and deteriorative to economic growth and industrial ephemeralization. Bureaucracy is an obsolete and inadequate organizational model on which to firmly establish a viable world economy.

An organizational model more fit to the necessities of a world economy is one founded on the criteria of change, external and internal, unburdened with any formal officialese, but rather formed spontaneously to economic necessity and disbanded once the need has been satiated. Such a model is adhoc, composed of temporary ad-hoc work teams founded to achieve a temporary goal and disbanded or reorganized to achieve other requisite objectives necessitated by the changing environment. Characteristic of adhocracy is the non-specialized requirement of interchangeable professionals, who are not overspecialized into anyone functional routine but who can successfully perform a variety of functions, and a horizontal communication net instead of the inefficient chain of command which leads to the influence of maladaptive officialism. Such inter-functional work teams provide democratized management system is essential to the retention of a decentralized socialist economy so necessary to economic growth.

The strategy for economic growth for overcoming politico-economic barriers to achieve a viable economic world economy requires foremost an enduring conditioned peace unaffected by intermittent warfare and political strife or a World War 111. Peace is essential to develop an international atmosphere of mutual trust and cooperative economic development. Warfare brings only economic regression and depression and hinders overall industrial ephemeralization on a world wide contextual basis. Peacetime preparation for war is a no growth non-productive end of any economy, contributing nothing but cooperative antagonism of the arms race and creating an international atmosphere of mistrust and destructive competition. The barriers of the minds of people are the hardest obstacles to overcome. Peace alone will not transcend tariff barriers and age old prejudice fostered by the spirit of nationalism world wide. A strategy of forced economic development providing an influx of equipment, material, knowledge, technical know how and energy necessary to develop regions that underdeveloped, without taxation or reparation, on the most modern technological level that is appropriate to the internal economy of the region,, must be required of world government. Modernization need not start on past obsolete foundations, but at the most appropriately current stage of economic progress. Such an economic strategy must be designed to make growth irresistible, resistance to change completely illogical and irrational. Along with a forced influx of industrial wealth, an educational influx must occur simultaneously in order to reform and educate the peoples of the backward regions--a coordinated program to prevent and minimize the malevolent affects of culture shock.

It is possible to achieve in a period of one human generation--25 to 30 years of continuing and uninterrupted world peace and economic development--in which the grand parents of today are passed away and the children of today are the managers of tomorrow's economy, raising their own children in an industrially developed world as the heirs of a modernized world economy and not as newborn slaves of traditional past fixations and past oriented conventions, a relative economic condition of world wide utopia. After such a period the world economy will have progressed to the point where more than 90% of the world's people will be living above the highest economic level of today. Poverty and all its ill side effects--starvation, ignorance and prejudice, disease, etc.--will then be a thing of the past unknown to the children of tomorrow. At the end of this period the world economy will have attained an essentially irreversible level of forward progress by the standard of total warfare today. Such a viewpoint is extremely over optimistic and idealistic in a world abounding with pessimism and negative realism.

An intermediate strategy must be adopted to achieve not only the required world peace, but mutual international cooperation, an overcoming of the cold war and a means of providing the necessary wealth to enable a forced influx of economic and educational development of backward regions of the world. The means of acquiring a world economy rest with the final foundation of world unity--the political basis of world power control. The world politic is the highest and ultimate expression of unity, providing the disappearance of world balkanization under the banners of nationalism and the minimal world centralism necessary under which international security, a decentralized socialism and in intermediate capitalism may flower in coalescence.

 

Despite the specific details of organizational matters there exists one fundamental truth which is most often neglected and obscured in politics, but which forms the most important premises in political understanding and that is the relationship of the citizen to the state and the primary importance of fundamental human rights. This is a truth which be self evident but rarely is so, and it is valid in the fullest context of understanding modern man is able to apply to it. This means every human right, universally applicable to every human being on earth. There is not one single human outside the application of this premises. The state and its organizational structure are naturally and primarily instituted to protect the individual and promote fundamental human rights. When a state no longer protects the security of its constituents and no longer honors these rights, it no longer serves its just obligation to the individual and requires reform. The efficacy of human rights, of profoundest implications for the future of civilization, is the only valid platform from which a just and adequately viable world political organization may be instituted. Once a mutual understanding of this foundation is attained by world humanity, all the rest of world politics should be more or less a managerial matter of efficient reorganization. Human rights has been the most ignored, neglected and violated political issue, the substratum underlying all political rhetoric and trivia, in the history of human civilization.

What are the fundamental human rights? It is best answered by the phrase "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness". They may be specified relative to the context of an individual's sense of any one person relinquishing all power over any other person to enable that person to be free and to be himself naturally, to become individually creative without imposing on others rights. This has profound implications in the socialization processes of child development and in specifying what type of influences are just in the raising of the child. It means the child must be given the chance, on its own to pursue its own development. No individual, even a child in relationship to the parent, whatever the parent's cultural preferences or prejudices, must serve another in an authoritarian power structure. No human can justly be the means of another human's needs or happiness. It is the first goal of world education to establish the deepest understanding and appreciation in all its implications of the issue of human rights. Once this primary understanding has been cultivated the political superstructure can be expediently fashioned to fit universal human nature. The best tool of every authoritarian power structure--nation or state or family--is the cultivation of ignorance, conventional dependence and exaggerated prejudice in the educational development of the individual. These vices must be eliminated by education, this is the leading rile which education plays in the establishing of world political foundations for unity.

 

"Health is a fundamental human right, as the constitution of the WHO recognized more than 30 years ago. It must therefore be pursued for itself, and not only as a prerequisite for development--the well being of people--can be achieved only by way of an approach to development that is oriented to the needs of the people."

"I insisted at the outset that health must be a goal in its own right. It is also a primary lever for development, health is for people, by people--and people are both the subject and the object of development. Health is also primary in a hardheaded political sense because the attainment of health is a relatively unexceptional goal."

 

"People" in Scientific American by Halfdan Mahler, September 1980.

 

Once a realistic sense of justice is cultivated through educational means within the collective subconscious of all humanity, a complimentary understanding of the limits of 'state's rights' must also be instilled. The secondary understanding is of the obligation of the individual not to the conformity of the dictates and conventions of the state, but to the exercise of the individual's responsibility to leadership, cultivation of a sense of ethical justice and the exercise of the fundamental human rights. This defines the first limit of the powers and privileges of the state over the individual. The second limit of the state is the establishment of a minimum social security program in which the individual's rights may achieve adequate expression and protection in a functional day to day manner. The third limit of the state is to establish a formal legal system of justice to insure the continuing security of fundamental human rights, the establishment of a written penal code, of a written bill of rights, and a written constitutional table of governmental powers and organization. These formal documents must be subject to public scrutiny and amendment by all members and must not only be written but enforced actively by the members of society. This calls for the establishment of a judicial system and of a participative democracy of legislation. Finally it is the duty of the individual in the exercise of his rights to also exercise his obligations to participate in the organization and continuing operation of the state powers--to continue to limit state privileges.

 

"The existence and validity of human rights are not written in the stars. The ideals concerning the conduct of men toward each other and the desirable structure of the community have been conceived and taught by enlightened individuals in the course of history. Those ideals and convictions which resulted from historical experience, from the craving for beauty and harmony, have been readily accepted in theory by man--and at all times, have been trampled upon by the same people under the pressure of their animal instincts. A large part of history is therefore replete with the struggle for these human rights, an eternal struggle in which a final victory can never be won. But to tire in that struggle would mean the ruin of society.

In talking about human rights today, we are referring primarily to the following demands, protection of the individual against arbitrary infringement by other individuals or by the government, the right to work and to adequate participation of the individual in the formation of his government. These human rights are nowadays recognized theoretically, although, by abundant use of formalistic legal maneuvers, they are being violated to a much greater extent than even a generation ago. There is, however, one other human right which is infrequently mentioned but which seems to be destined to become important, that is the right, or the duty, of the individual to abstain from cooperating in activities which he considers wrong or pernicious. The first place in this respect must be given to the refusal of military service.. I have known instances where individuals of unusual moral strength and integrity have for that reason, come into conflicts with the organs of the state. The Nuremberg Trial of the German war criminals was tacitly based on the recognition of the principle: criminal actions cannot be excused if committed on government orders, conscience supersedes the authority of the law of the state."

 

"Human Rights" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

If one holds fundamental human rights highly enough and clearly enough before any other political issue, as of primary importance to the political functions of the state, and not of its political neglect which has become a world wide practice, its extension to the moral reality and just efficacy of establishing a world political superstructure with power over nations cannot be denied. It is a continuation of the violation of human rights, by not relinquishing power of the state to a supranational organization and to continue with the unnecessary practices of national conscription and national sovereignty. It is the continuing neglect of these fundamental human rights which are unjustifiably violated by all national politicians who authorize the production and sale of weapons, institute compulsory military service and declare war and make all efforts of peaceful negotiation, compromise and international organization hypocrisy disguising a hotbed of nationalism and international balkanization, oligarchy and competitive antagonism. It is not only in the name of justice to human rights than an international superstructure should be instituted but it is a continuing injustice to ignore and neglect in apathy its accomplishment.

 

"If we hold fast to the concept and practice of unlimited sovereignty of nations it only means that each country reserves the right for itself of pursuing its objectives through warlike means. Under the circumstances, each nation must be prepared for that possibility, this means that it must try with all its might to be superior to anyone else. This objective will dominate more and more our entire public life and will poison our youth long before the catastrophe is itself actually upon us. We must not tolerate this, however, as long as we still retain a tiny bit of calm reasoning and human feelings.

This alone is on my mind in supporting the idea of "World Government" without any regard to what other people may have in mind, when working for the same objective. I advocate world government because I am convinced that there is no other possible way of eliminating the most terrible danger in which man has ever found himself. The objective of avoiding total destruction must have priority over any other objective."

 

"Exchange of Letters With Members of the Russian Academy" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

The advantages of a world government, accruing from mutual cooperation between nations and peoples and collective security, not available in a world of competitive antagonism, makes it immediate implementation not only just but of greater efficacy from an economical and functional standpoint. These advantages arise from the lessening of the burden of defense by pooling the resources of all nations and indirectly freeing the individual of unjust social demands. It would enable the free unrestricted and potentially unlimited socio-economic development increasing the invisible commonwealth of all humanity: starvation, poverty and disease could then be effectively eradicated instead of being allowed to persist because of political neglect and inattention.

The advantages far outweigh any disadvantages. The most commonly cited disadvantage for world government is the threat of a world dictatorship in which the human race would lose completely their human rights. But this is not a real disadvantage of a supranational government. It is a collective illusion fostered primarily by authoritarian power structures to prevent the loss of authority through such an establishment, while they strive through acquisitive tendencies to establish just such a totalitarian world regime based on their own selfish power. The actual amount of centralism arising from a supranational political organization would be minimal, hardly as much as occurs in the authoritarian practices of today in context to national boundaries and national sovereignty. The feasibility of such a totalitarian world regime is questionable. Effective world organization can only be founded on mutual trust and cemented by mutual cooperation which automatically precludes maximization of centralism. The most effective measure for combating the crystallization of formal officialism and authoritarian power structures at the level of world organization is to cultivate within the grass roots social fabric conscientious resistance by the world citizen through open education and communication. The securing of foundations of world unity lies in the educational development of the individual.

 

"Do I fear tyranny of a world government? Of course I do, but I fear still more the coming of another war of wars. Any government is certain to be evil to some extent. But a world government is preferable to the far greater evil of wars, particularly with their intensified destructiveness. If such a world government is not established by a process of argument, I believe it will come anyway and in a much more dangerous form. For war or wars will end in one power being supreme and dominating the rest of the world by its overwhelming military strength."

 

"Atomic War or Peace" in Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein.

 

In the establishment of a world government the bureaucratic model of authoritarian power structures must prevalent in national governments must be voided completely an in its place a horizontal power structure must be instituted which would automatically resist centralism--the alternative model of participative democracy and of decentralized anarchy. It is against human nature to even want to be lead by another. It is the natural desire of every normal human to be a leader--not of others but of the self. The establishment of a single leader with authority over life and death necessitated by the reciprocal injustice of war need not occur in a world without war. No human is divine nor should be symbolically deified by others as perfect or superior in any way. The ideal of a minimized centralism is the only feasible and functional mode of world political superstructure. World government is founded on the efficacy of fundamental human rights and primarily for their protection by the prevention of international war which is the most common extreme manner in which these fundamental human rights are violated.

In consideration of an alternative model of political organization the essential efficacy and justice of participative democracy and of decentralized anarchy must be recognized as both a natural and efficient form of world government--one that is pleasing to most of the people most of the time. A decentralized state of anarchy brings to mind a prejudicial illusion of longhaired bomb throwing terrorists, of social confusion, panic, rioting and general lawlessness in which human rights are continuously being violated and social order is nonexistent. Decentralization must follow centralization. Anarchy is feasible only after the educational reinforcement of the social fabric of order and individual self discipline. The decentralized state of anarchy can only effectively and ideally follow minimized centralism. It is a political ideal of social utopia in which society conforms to universal human nature, instead of human nature conforming to social expectations and demands. It is the unrestricted environment in which natural growth of the individual can be achieved and unhindered evolution of technological civilization can occur. The definition of anarchy includes the minimum establishment of a police and fire department to provide minimum social security and services. The establishment of a world police organization to enforce international law and order and to suppress nationalistic tendencies is both desirable and economically feasible--an objective entailing no tremendous difficulty. The world wide establishment that is the counterpart of a social fire department is the formation of an international version combining the peace corps, WHO and of international educational and economic assistance programs to combat disease, starvation, poverty and ignorance. This would be the function of a world fire department. Once again, education is the key to establishing a decentralized state of anarchy.

While a decentralized state of anarchy is the political ideal, the working model of participative democracy is an alternative relativistic compromise with operational reality. With the aid of advanced computers and communications techniques a purely horizontal communication-voting net--as a permanent world wide organizational structure with legislative authority--can be instituted. The idea of a single leader with the final authority as being the most efficient means of government which might be applicable to the failure of justice necessitated by an international warfare continuum, but not needed in a permanent state of world peace is another obsolete illusion fostered by the authoritarian power structure. A modernized horizontal political structure founded on all channel communication net, and upon mutual trust, cooperative action and compromise planning and policy is in the final analysis a far more efficient and just system in a condition of stable definite peace. The operational results would be more economical and qualitatively improved. There is no need for indirect republican system of voting, or for limiting the franchise to a select minority or a party system. These are all made absolutely the advance of communication and computer technology. The voting can be done fairly with potentially unlimited participation b all the world citizens, in a very direct manner utilizing mass media and inter-personal communication facilities. Individuals can vote directly and automatically on every issue. The will of the majority, maximized through cooperative compromise can automatically tabulated world wide. Any individual can offer immediate suggestions for legislative or executive action. Legislative and executive duty can be similar to jury duty, with each person serving a minimal amount of time to the service to the world government. The operational success of such a world democracy would depend upon the continuing cooperative participation by as many voters as possible and ultimately on the educational development of the participant.

 

"Behind all such efforts runs the notion that national and by extension, local) goals for the future of society ought to be formulated at the top. This technocratic premise perfectly mirrors the old bureaucratic forms of organization in which line and staff were separated, in which rigid, undemocratic hierarchies distinguished leader from lead, manager from managed, planner from planned.

Yet the real, as distinct from the glibly verbalized goals of society on the path to super industrialism are already too complex, too transient and too dependent for their achievement upon the willing participation of the governed, to be perceived and defined so easily. We cannot hope to harness the runaway forces of change by assembling a Kaffee Klatsch to set goals for us or by turning the task over to a highly technical staff. A revolutionary new approach to goal setting is needed…"

 

"Yet systems of goal formation based on elitist premises are simply no longer "efficient". In the struggle to capture control of the forces of change, they are increasingly counter productive. For under super industrialism democracy becomes not a political luxury but a primal necessity.

Democratic political forms arose in the West not because of a few geniuses willed them into being or because man showed an "unquenchable instinct for freedom". They arose because the historical pressure toward social differentiation and toward faster paced systems demanded sensitive social feedback. In complex, differentiated societies, vast amounts of knowledge must flow at ever faster speeds between the formal organization and subcultures that make up the whole and between layers and substructures within these.

Political democracy, by incorporating larger and larger numbers in social decision making, facilitates feedback. And it is precisely this feedback that is essential to control. To assume control over accelerant change, we shall need still more advanced and more democratic feedback mechanisms.

The technocrat, however, still thinking in top down terms, frequently make plans without arranging for adequate and instantaneous feedback from the field, so that he seldom knows how well his plans are working. When he does arrange for feedback, what he usually asks for and gets is heavily economic, inadequately social, psychological or cultural. Worse yet, he makes these plans without sufficiently taking into account the fast changing needs and wishes of those whose participation is needed to make them a success. He assumes the right to set social goals by himself or he accepts them blindly from some higher authority.

He fails to recognize that the faster pace of change demands and creates a new kind of information system in society: a loop rather than a ladder. Information must pulse through this loop at accelerating speeds, with the output of one group becoming the input for many others, so that no group however politically potent it may seem, can independently set goals for the whole…"

 

"Another point of stating this is that, as the number of social components grows and change makes the whole system less stable, it becomes less and less possible to ignore the demands of political minorities--hippies, blacks, lower-middle class Wallacites, school teachers or the proverbial old ladies in tennis shoes. In a slower moving, industrial context, Americans could turn its back on the needs of its black minority, in the new fast paced cybernetic society, this minority can, by sabotage, strike or a thousand other means, disrupt the entire system. As interdependency grows, smaller and smaller groups within society achieve greater and greater power for critical disruption. Moreover, as the rate of change speeds up, the length of time in which they can be ignored shrinks to near nothingness. Hence: Freedom Now!

This suggests that the best way to deal with angry or recalcitrant minorities is to open the system further, bringing them into it as full partners, permitting them to participate in social goal setting rather than attempting to ostracize or isolate them. A Red China locked out of the United Nations and the larger international community is far more likely to destabilize the world than one laced into the system. Young people forced into prolonged adolescence and deprived of the right to partake in social decision making will grow more and more unstable until they threaten the overall system. In short, in politics, in industry, in education, goals set without the participation of those affected will be increasingly hard to execute. The continuation of top down technocratic goal setting procedures will lead to greater and greater social instability, less and less control over the forms of change, and ever greater danger of cataclysmic man destroying upheaval.

To master change, we shall therefore need both a clarification of important long range social goals and a democratization of the way in which we arrive at them. And this means nothing less than the next political revolution in the techno-societies--a breath taking affirmation of popular democracy…"

 

"Let us convene in each nation, in each city, in each neighborhood, democratic constituent assemblies charged with social stock taking, charged with defining and assigning priorities to specific special goals for the reminder of the century.

Such social future assemblies might represent not merely geographical localities but social units--industry, labor, the churches, students with organized representation for the unorganized as well. There are no sure fire techniques for guaranteeing equal representation for all, or for eliciting the wishes of the poor, the inarticulate or the isolated. Yet once we recognize the need to include them we shall find the ways. Indeed, the problem of participating in the definition of the future is not merely a problem of the poor, the inarticulate or the isolated. Highly paid executives, wealthy professionals, extremely articulate intellectuals and students--all at one time or another feel cut off from the power to influence the direction and pace of change. Wiring them into the system, making them a part of the guidance machinery of society, is the most critical political task of the coming generation. Imagine, the effect if at one level or another a place were provided where all those who will live in the future might voice their wishes about it. Imagine in short a massive global exercise in anticipatory democracy.

Social future assemblies need not- and, given the rate of transience-cannot be anchored, permanent institution. Instead they might take the form of ad hoc groupings, perhaps called into being at regular intervals with different representatives participating each time. Today's citizens are expected to serve on juries when needed. They give a few days or a few weeks of their time for this service, recognizing that the jury system is one of the guarantees of democracy, that even though service may be inconvenient, someone must do the job. Social future assemblies could be organized along these similar lines, with a constant stream of new participants brought together for shore periods to serve as society's 'consultants on the future'.

Such grass roots organisms for expressing the will of large numbers of hitherto unconsulted people, could become, in effect, the town halls of the future, in which millions help to shape their own distant destinies…"

 

"The encouraging fact is that we now have the potential for achieving tremendous breakthroughs in democratic decision making if we make imaginative use of the new technologies, both 'hard' and 'soft', that bear on the problem. Thus, advanced tele-communications means that participants in a social future assembly need not literally meet in a single room but might simply be hooked into a communications net that straddles the globe. A meeting of scientists to discuss research goals for the future or goals for environmental quality, could draw participants from many countries at once. An assembly of steel workers, unionists and executives convened to discuss goals for automation and for the improvement of work itself, could link up participants from many mills, offices and warehouses, no matter how scattered or remote…"

 

"Future Shock" by Alvin Toffler.

 

What are the formal manifestations of the political superstructure of world government? This rests in the establishment of a codified system of international law, of a world judiciary system and international courts of arbitration and a formal international treaty system. Certain areas of the earth and humanity are the proper domain of international law. These include the high seas, the Arctic Circle, outer space, the upper atmospheres, arbitration over international drug trafficking, war material tariffs, economic warfare embargoes and acts of general war and military aggression. Control over these areas and a contribution by each nation of an internationally organized police and fire department is the realm of world government. It is feasible that while not all nations will submit sovereignty to the authority of a supranational organization, if a strong majority multilaterally relinquished authority to such a supranational organization, the others might eventually be persuaded to acquire all the advantages of collective security also. Each member nation should submit a formal treaty of mutual cooperation, of a declaration of human rights and of unilateral de-escalation of military armament.

Executive authority might be relinquished to a bicameral parliamentary representative branch elected biannually with short term leaders to control the police and fire departments, to serve the organizational housekeeping functions of formalizing suggestions, amendments and policy propositions for popular vote, hammering out compromises to achieve maximum support. In an atmosphere of international cooperation and guaranteed peace gone would be the necessity of executive authority being exercised by one person, elected or not. A parliamentary executive branch of elected representatives would represent adequately under such conditions the embodiment of a single individual executive. One house of this executive branch might be elected by a nation state to serve equitable national representation, the other might be elected directly according to the population of world regions.

 

"I should like to see the authority of the supranational regime restricted altogether to the field of security. Whether this would be possible I am not sure. Experience may point to the desirability of adding some authority over economic matters, since under modern conditions these are capable of causing national upsets that have in them the seeds of violent conflict. But I should prefer to see the function of the organization altogether limited to the tasks of security. I also should like to see this regime established through the strengthening of the United Nations, so as not to sacrifice continuity in the search for peace.

I do not hide from myself the great difficulties of establishing world government, either a beginning without Russia of one with Russia. I am aware of the risks. Since it should not wish it to be permissible for any country that has joined the supranational organization to secede, one of these risks is a possible civil war. But I also believe that world government is certain to come in time and that the question is how much it is permitted to cost. It will come, I believe, even if there is another world war, though after such a war, if it is won, it would be world government established by the victor, resting on the victor's military power and thus to be maintained permanently only through the permanent militarization of the human race.

But I also believe it comes through agreement and through the force of persuasion alone, hence at low cost. But if it is to come in this way, it will not be enough to appeal to reason. One strength of the communist system if the East is that is has some of the characteristics of a religion and inspires the emotions of a religion. Unless the cause of peace based on law gathers behind it the force and zeal of a religion, it can hardly hope to succeed. Those to whom the moral teaching of the human race is entrusted surely have a great duty and a great opportunity. The atomic scientists,, I think, have become convinced that they cannot arouse the American people to the truths of the atomic era by logic alone. There must be added that deep power of emotion, which is a basic ingredient of religion. It is to be hoped that not only the churches but the schools, the colleges and the leading organs of opinion will acquit themselves well of their unique responsibility in this regard."

 

"Atomic War or Peace" by Albert Einstein.

 

The greatest barriers to overcome in the establishment of world unity is that which is in each of our individual minds, and as a whole, in the collective world mind. There is a basic pathological dichotomization which undercuts and decisively influences world opinion. I shall call it the Russian-American dichotomy. The worst problem about Soviet communism is that it has transcended from being a purely political problem to occupy a firm religious ground, a common faith or belief commonly shared and therefore made to seem realistic in the collective mind of the Russian people. Such well cultivated, well insulated ignorance, collectively believed in and without unified opposition from within, forms an almost and yet not quite insurmountable barrier--an unintentional, subconsciously enforced rejection of the rationality of truth. This is the human limitation of rationality which is applicable to the American as well. For the American it entails getting him to relinquish egocentric materialism, passive consumption, and to renounce practical 'common sense' and to strive for a more intensively if 'irrational' spirituality in a creatively oriented lifestyle. For the religious fanatic, of all and every ideology, even if not called by that title, it requires the courage and self honesty to transcend anthropomorphic dogmatism and 'rational' delusions of truth to strive for a more comprehensive spirituality embracing the whole of humanity and the whole of reality. For the post industrialized nations it will require more forward looking public planning policy, which instead of being a poker strategy based on immediate profit incentives and haphazard cost optimizing progress, must become a more long range strategy based upon capital intensive programs which hold greater promise for progress but which are attainable only at greater cost and sacrifice through centralism. Future progress will no longer be as cheap and as easily affordable as it has been in the past. For the third world, pre-industrialized nations, it will require foremost social leadership for the common good and individual inculcation of the concepts of 'self reliance', 'self discipline' and 'self sacrifice'. Theirs is the fate of past poverty and little future gain. Again, education plays a key role--being of paramount importance to world unity in overcoming this very generalized dichotomization. It will require for all the world people--for the collective world mind to learn to think and to act as a world humanity, each human as an individual member of total world humanity. More than any other quality is needed individual leadership, the responsibility, initiative and courage to become creative and to achieve self actualization, to not resist change and to incorporate active changes into one's personal lifestyle. The barrier of the mind seems insurmountable and yet it has its weaknesses. It is vulnerable to that same 'rationality' which proves its greatest aggravation. It is susceptible to fleeting visions of truth and brief glimpses of utopia idealism. The human being is not destined to be subservient to his means of existence. The key to unlocking that barrier, to gain assess to the future, lies squarely within the cultivation of the self realization of creativity in the definition of individuality and the formulation of self revolution from which all other revolutionary forms are ultimately derived. It lies in normatively inspired behavior which is the spontaneous universally natural human behavior and the natural function and purpose of humanity in the universe, in every form of expression possible to the human within the most comprehensive context of reality. It is not impossible to forge or to discover some technique or tool which might facilitate this world wide realization, revolution and overcoming of this primary barrier to tomorrow by unleashing creative potential from every human soul.

 

"As long, however, as the nations are not resolved to abolish war through common actions and to solve their conflicts and protect their interests by peaceful decisions on a legal basis, they feel compelled to prepare for war. They feel obliged to prepare all possible means, even the most detestable ones, so as not to be left behind in the general armament race. This road necessarily leads toward a war which under the present conditions means universal destruction."

Under these circumstances the fight against means has no chance of success. Only the radical abolition of wars and of the threat of war can help. This is what one has to work for. One has to be resolved not to let himself be forced to actions that run counter to this goal. This is a severe demand on an individual who is conscious of his dependence on society. But it is no impossible demand.

Gandhi, the greatest political genius of our time, has pointed the way. He has shown of what sacrifices people are capable once they have found the right way. His work for the liberation of India is a living testimony to the fact that a will governed by firm conviction is stronger than a seemingly invincible material power."

 

"On the Abolition of the Threat of War' by Albert Einstein.

 

"Unfortunately, there are no indications that governments yet realize that the situation is which mankind finds himself makes the adoption of revolutionary measures a compelling necessity. Our situation is not comparable to anything in the past. It is impossible, therefore, to apply methods and measures which at an earlier age might have been sufficient. We must revolutionize our actions and must have the courage the revolutionize relations among nations of the world. Clichés of yesterday will no longer do today, and will, no doubt, be hopelessly out of date tomorrow. To bring this home to men all over the world is the most important and most fateful social function intellectuals have ever had to shoulder. Will they have enough courage to overcome their own national ties to the extent that is necessary to induce the peoples of the world to change their deep rooted national traditions in a most radical fashion?

A tremendous effort is indispensable. If it fails now, the supranational organization will be built later, but then it will have to be built upon the ruins of a large part of the existing world. Let us hope that the abolition of the existing international anarchy will not need to be brought by a self inflicted world catastrophe the dimensions of which none of us can possibly imagine. The time is terribly short. We must act now if we are to act at all."

 

"A Message to Intellectuals" by Albert Einstein.

 

The primary function of the world government must be to secure law and order in the international society. But what is the nature of international law and order, and how is it best preserved? The primary function of the world government is to prevent or halt general war between nations. But where to begin in the establishment of a world judiciary system? To prevent the nationalists from making of world government a hypocrisy that hides their selfish intentions of power acquisition. The first place is to start with the establishment of justice in warfare, which far from having any natural immunity from this sphere of influence of justice and reason, is very much the primary and most important area in which justice must be established. Once justice is established in the conduct and control of warfare, through mutual cooperation by a majority of world nation states, all other spheres of international influence and problems can be worked out in a peaceful, cooperative manner. Ultimately the establishment of justice in war means a minimization of its ill effects through strategically the most successful and economically the most efficient means--that of securing a permanent world peace in which all other problems may be solved and world unity cultivated. Investigation of the essential moral justice of war, of fundamental strategic success and of operative economic efficiency in the conduct of warfare reveals that generally there are only two types of war, the just war and the unjust war. It is founded on the concept of a universal human nature which lies in an individual's creative abilities, it is the source of the nebulous indirect approach in the creation of strategy, of industrial ephemeralization in the evolution of technological civilization, and above all the cultivation of the normative sense of ethical justice in every sphere of human activity. It means the minimization of conflict. The true absolutely just war in the final analysis is no war at all--it is peace. The unjust war is strategically unsuccessful, economically inefficient, and morally inhuman, it is the results of efforts toward maximization of tactical conflict and violent destruction. It is the surrendering of common human dignity which separates and distinguishes a person as an individual to a negativistic pathological condition of dehumanization--the solidification of the authoritarian power structure. It is the maximization of tactical conflict--the escalation toward and inevitable occurrence of total, world consuming warfare.

World unity and world peace go hand in hand in the prospects of the future of humanity. Without striving for world peace, unity will be unobtainable. Yet how is it possible to achieve a transformation of the prevailing warfare continuum of but intermittent peace times, which are used primarily for preparation for the inevitability of the next war, into a peace time continuum in which wars are but of intermittently diminishing totality interrupting a permanent condition of peace. Without unity of human valuation, it is ultimately unachievable , but there is also a complementary course for achieving a relatively permanent condition of a peace time continuum. This is the plan for alternative foundations of world peace. The ideal objective is the devolution of aggression and militarism and the re-humanization of mankind.

 

1. "Future Shock" by Alvin Toffler 1970, Bantam Books Inc.

 

2. "The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature" by Ayn Rand 1971, Signet:

The New American Library Inc.

 

3. "Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology" by Ayn Rand 1979, Mentor: The New

American Library Inc.

 

4. "The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance" by Abraham Maslow 1966, Henry

Regnery Company.

 

5. "Utopia or Oblivion: The Prospects for Humanity" by Buckminster Fuller 1969,

Bantam Books Inc.

 

6. "The Dogma of Christ: and Other Essays on Religion, Psychology and Culture" by

Erich Fromm 1955, Fawcett Publications Inc.

 

7. "Ideas and Opinions" by Albert Einstein edited by Carl Seelig 1973, Dell Publishing

Company Inc.

 

 

Military Dimensions

1979-80

Hugh M. Lewis


Blanket Copyright, Hugh M. Lewis, © 2005. Use of this text governed by fair use policy--permission to make copies of this text is granted for purposes of research and non-profit instruction only.

Last Updated: 09/03/11