Universal  Relativity

& the Inferential Structure of Physical Reality

by Hugh M. Lewis

 

The theory of the dynamic state universe makes a claim for universal relativity--that there are no fixed or absolute coordinate reference points by which to compare the motion and behavior of any physical system in the universe except what I refer to as the point of absolute zero-rest. This is interpreted as being an indirect result of an underlying assumption of the complex infinity of the total universe as a meta-state system. The behavior of any finite physical system therefore is relativistically determined by the physical frame of reference at the level that such a system occurs. Universally I refer to such a frame of reference as gravitational-electromagnetic in structure and dynamic nature, and this constitutes the systematic and fundamental structure of space-time.

I would make the claim that the dynamic state universe as a meta-state system is a perpetual motion machine that is open-ended in basic structure and therefore infinite in total structure. Another way of looking at this assumption is to state the following paradigm of gravitational dynamics:

All things in the universe are in motion, and hence are relative to the gravitational system in which that motion occurs. Nothing in the universe is not in motion, and there is no nothing except possibly at the most fundamental or zeroth level of analytical reduction of physical structure of reality.

There can be no motionless states in the physical universe, a condition that I refer to as a state of absolute rest except in a total sense and except in the most fundamental or zeroth sense.

All systems of motion are subject to the extended laws of inertia and momentum, which can be defined as the gravitational resistance to perturbance or change in the direction or speed of motion.

All systems of motion seek a state of relative equilibrium, which can be defined as the state of minimal dynamic change in the system, or relative rest.

Motional systems in empty space-time will retain their motional characteristics indefinitely and forever unless acted upon by some outside perturbing force.

Objects of mass will create gravity fields which remain indefinite and forever unless something acts upon the object of mass to disrupt its gravitational unity.

The state of absolute gravitational rest is equivalent to the state of absolute thermodynamic zero. The thermodynamics and gravitational dynamics of any real system in the universe must be taken fully into account.

Both instances appear to defy the fundamental laws of thermodynamics and therefore result in a revision of these laws based upon a broadened paradigm taking into account gravitationally dynamic phenomena. In other words, these describe to common classes of physical systems in the universe that can be described as perpetual motion machines.

We can say that this pattern of indefinite motion is equivalent to the state of changing time of the system--in other words, things change in time because they are in a state of relative motion, and things are in a state of relative motion because they are changing in time.

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In a conventional Newtonian framework of the laws of motion, we can associate with the motion of a single object a single instantaneous preferred direction. In this model, an object may move in only one direction at one point in time. The straight line trajectory of such an object in classic Newtonian space becomes perforce a curved geodesic trajectory in Einsteinian geometrical space-time. The laws of equivalence compare the inertial frames of reference between accelerating objects and falling objects in gravity fields. The concept of universal relativity embraces Einsteinian geometricity in space-time, and extends this model to include the hierarchical stratification of multiple gravitationally unified systems. A gravitationally unified system is said to be one or more gravitating bodies of mass that exist in motional equilibrium with one another within a single dominant gravitational field. The motions of the bodies of such a system may be said to be coordinate and synchronous to one another and therefore non-independent of one another within the same gravitational framework. Universal relativity states that an object may exist in more than one, or in multiple gravitational frames of reference at the same time, such that the object may be moving in multiple preferred directions at the same time. Given a preferred level of gravitational unification, there will be only one preferred direction manifest for that level. In a gravitationally unified system, all motions are synchronized in the same preferred direction. All sub-motions will be independent variations of this system. The case in point is the rotation of the earth on its axis. We do not normally notice this rotation as motion except by comparing the motion of the moon and the sun in relation to the earth. We move about fairly freely upon the earth's surface without noticing the effect of the earth's spin. Our only constraint is gravity itself that holds us to the earth's surface at all times. Similarly, we are also part of the motion of the earth around the sun, another gravitational frame of reference relative to the sun the motion of which we do not take into account except in terms of the passing seasons and the changing positions of the stars at night. We may get in a car and travel along a freeway at 70 mph. The cars next to us might be traveling at variable speeds of 71, 74 and 68 mph, and their relative positions to ours appear to be changing only slightly. If we had an accident with a car next to us, the initial collision would be at a speed of only a couple of miles per hour, relative to our own. We would not feel the full consequence of the impact until one or both cars spun into a side embuttment and suddenly stopped from relative 70 to 0 mph. Even so, we do not take into account the speed or trajectory of the car relative to the spin of the earth on its, as the embuttment, the road, and the cars are all traveling in the same preferred direction at the same speed relative to the earth's spin.

The consequence is to understand that a single object of mass may be capable of multiple motional trajectories at the same time, relative to the gravitational frames of reference that it occurs within. Each motional trajectory must be in a single instantanteously preferred direction relative to the unified gravitational system. In other words, the unified gravitational system as a whole, including all mass bodies that are a part of that system, is moving in a single instantaneous preferred direction, and all other submotions of parts of that system are independent. The motions of different levels of gravitational frames of reference are independent of one another, and for each set of motions, there can be attributed relative values of inertia, momentum, velocity, direction, and spatio-temporal coordinate reference values. In other words, we may associate multiple mechanical-dynamic values to a single object, depending upon the numbers and levels of gravitational frames of reference in which it is situated. Furthermore, the motional trajectories of each preferred direction at each level are not only independent of one another, but each follows its own geodesic trajectory through multiple Einsteinian space-times. We may associate multiple clocks with the motional trajectory of an object in a system, each coordinate with the gravitational frame of reference with which that clock is situated. We may take the alleged motion of the galaxies as a result of the Big Bang theory. According to red shift of light, we hypothesize that the galaxies or galactic clusters are accelerating away from one another, and this acceleration may achieve speeds close to that of the speed of light at very great depths of space-time. Therefore we may conclude that if this theory is correct, then our own galaxy must be accelerating in some preferred direction relative to all others, and that this speed may actually approach that of a significant fraction of light speed. Of course, if this is so, then this is a possible motion of which we ourselves may be a part that we do not or have not yet fully taken notice of.

According to the theory of universal relativity, therefore, any object may be involved in more than one motion at any one time, relative to a preferred system of gravitational unification, and it is possible that such an object may be involved in an infinite number of motions simultaneously, within an infinite number of stratified gravitational frames of reference. Such an object would be assigned multiple coordinate reference values relative to each gravitationally unified system in which it was a part. We could in an absolute sense assign a composite vector or complex state-path trajectory for the object taking into account all preferred directions and velocities of the object in all gravitationally unified systems in which it occurs, but it may be impossible in an absolute or non-relative sense to determine the total number of motional systems of which that object may be a part. We might calculate the complexity for instance of an object relative to several unified systems simultaneously--say the motion of the car we are riding in relative to the earth's spin and rotation around the sun and relative to the sun's trajectory in the Milky Way galaxy, and even possibly relative to the trajectory of the Milky Way galaxy relative to other galaxies of the Universe, but we would not know whether our region of the universe may not be involved in some larger system.

We may state a paradigm for universal relativity therefore as follows:

1. an object may move in only one preferred direction and time relative to one level of gravitational unification.

2. An object that is embedded in multiple unified gravitational systems may move in multiple directions and times instantaneously.

3. The composite pathway of an object in multiple stratified gravitational systems is thus inherently complex.

4. An object may thus be embedded simultaneously (principle of universal simultaneity) in multple gravitational frames of reference.

5. There will be multiple sets of motional characteristics (momentum, direction, velocity, time) associated with the complex motional trajectory of such an object of mass.

The object may even be said to have multiple masses relative to the gravitational frames of reference in which it simultaneously occurs, and it can be said that the object may exist in multiple frames of temporal reference simultaneously.

Extending this paradigm to a fundamental quantum scale of subatomic event structures, we may substitute the effects of other forms of energy, light, strong and weak, for the influence of gravitational frames of reference, as if these systems were still embedded within larger gravitational frames of reference. In other words, the associative properties that we attribute to motional trajectories of mass based objects in gravitationally unified systems are equivalent to similar associative properties of the state-path trajectories of quantum events in other forms of energy field. These alternative energy fields, including fields of gravitational radiation, are considered to be alternatives to the potential gravitational energy field of space-time, but generally in a condensed and concentrated form that is the result of local turbulence relating to particle-properties.

We may say that potential or negative gravitational energy is intrinsic to the structure of space-time itself. The flow of space-time is the expressed in terms of gravitational effects, and we understand these effects in Einsteinian terms of inertial frames of reference. The inertia of acceleration may be said to be inherent gravitational resistance of space-time to a change in the directional velocity of motion of an object. It occurs in the counter-direction, or opposite direction to that of the preferred instantaneous motion. Space-time, it is concluded, may flow in multiple directions at the same time, and this is a curious property that we associate with its structure. We may only explain this upon a fundamental level, I believe, in terms of spin-resonance synchronization of space-time along multiple simultaneous axii.

Corollaries of this model are the following: All objects of mass have rotational-spin characteristics that are a function of its gravitational field. Spin may be said to be the intrinsic motion of a gravitating body of mass. Bodies of mass to small and weak in gravitation to assume a spherical form will appear to "tumble." The rate of spin is variable. Even if an object were not attached to any other larger gravitational frame of reference, and even if that object could be attributed no other motional trajectory through space-time, that object would still have spin.

Objects that are not within a unified system of gravitation may be said to move randomly and independently relative to one another in a non-synchronized manner. In such a system, collisions are expected to occur with a given average rate of expectancy. Such a system would appear chaotic and to be "falling apart." It is possible that the larger inter-galactic frame of reference of the observational universe is not gravitationally unified, according to the cosmological principle, and may thus be essentially "falling apart" at its intergalactic seams. Of course, this may belie unseen motions at a larger level that we are not aware off.

There is a important pattern in understanding the organization and history of the universe, it is the tendency in such systems for what can be called self-organizing or self-arranging motion relative to a preferred direction of motion, or for what can be called systems to seek a form of stochastic gravitational equilibrium.

We may say that systems will tend to sort themselves motionally in relation to one another such that:

The strongest or largest gravitating body will tend to occupy a central position. The trajectories and the relative positions of the other objects in the system will be sorted about this central position, based upon the direction, velocity and motion of each body relative to the center, and independently of one another.

Alternately, two or more strong bodies will occupy a mutual trajectory relative to one another about a complex central point of gravitation.

All other lessor bodies will tend to arrange themselves in time gravitationally in relation to the central single or composite system, and relative to one another, in a preferred direction of rotation, and upon what can be called a preferred plane of rotation that is said to be equatorial plane of gravitational spin-rotation.

In time, objects of such a system will spontaneously self-organize into a complex and stable set of trajectories that achieve a relative state of gravitational equilibrium at which state the system as a whole may be said to have become gravitationally unified. This system will in a larger gravitational frame of reference respond as a whole--i.e., the motions of the parts of the system will be synchronized to a preferred direction within a larger gravitational frame of reference.

It is to be asked whether or not, in the larger universe, if larger and larger regions of the universe will spontaneously self-organized over a longer frame of time. It is expected that it will. It also suggests that an early phase of the universe probably consisted of a heterogeneous patchwork of large hydrogen-helium cloud formations and a myriad small-sized stars that were relatively independent of one another. Original galaxies would have been small and relatively amorphous, achieving some kind of spherical shape before growing and eventually flattening out upon a common central point of gravitational reference. Galaxies that would collide into one another would do so in such a way as to eventually coalesce into a larger gravitational system. Expected rates of collision of systems would be expect to decrease in time gradually as systems became increasingly organized and increasingly incorporate larger and larger areas.

Furthermore, it is expected that the universe gradually went from a relatively quiescent state to an increasingly turbulent condition, if we invoke a principle of spontaneous gravitational motion similar to intrinsic gravitational spin-rotation. The universe started out as a disorganized patchwork or randomly arranged series of pockets of hydrogen-helium formations that arose as a result of intrinsic gravitational turbulence of space-time. Space-time is dynamic, not static. Analogously, we can imagine a set of billiard balls cast randomly across a pool table. Because of gravitational forces of each balls, in otherwise empty space-time, it is expected that:

1. The billiard balls would gradually accelerate in motion relative to one another.

2. The billiard balls would eventually arrange themselves in a state of complex gravitational equilibrium as a unified system.

This is referred to as the principle of spontaneous motion of gravitational systems, and it is attributed to the inherent dynamic turbulence of space-time, just as intrinsic spin rotation is attributable to the fundamental spin-synchronization of unified gravitational systems. Intrinsic spin and spontaneous acceleration are two forms of behavior that occur commonly in the universe but which have heretofore escaped our notice as such. Motion of astronomical entities (they are all in motion) must be accounted for in some manner. In empty space-time, motion is not only easy to effect, but inevitable and unavoidable as a consequence of the turbulence of space-time. Very slight gravitational differentials, even from very far-off distances, can have in such empty fields the cumulative consequence of tipping the scale in the direction of the source of gravitation. Gravitation then behaves as if a giant tractor-field that serves to pull everything towards its source--its source is not really the point of flow of gravity, but the destination of the gravitational flow of space-time towards a common center. It is as if a boat cast adrift on the high seas, eventually becoming caught in the great currents that flow around the earth, and carrying that craft toward some final point of convergence. If we suddenly pull the plug on the drain of a sink that is filled with water, and we have some small object floating about in the water, we will notice that object eventually floating and being carried down the drain. Gravity fields that are concentric about a common source of gravitation behave in precisely this manner.

The universe appears capable therefore of self-organizational behavior that allows it to move from a relatively random to a less random state. This appears to defy the principle laws of thermodyanamics, but can only be explained if we invoke the complementary laws of gravitational dynamics that appear in many ways to contradict the expectations of purely thermodynamic systems. When we take into account patterns of gravitational unification and the achievement of relative gravitational equilibrium of systems, a dynamic equilibrium that can be said to involve intrinsic spin-rotation and spontaneous acceleration-motion that are allowable within a complementary framework of gravitational dynamics. It is expected that in a gravitationally dynamic system, the principle of entropy does not apply in the strict sense that it is applied in thermodynamics--rather the state of relative equilibrium seems applicable, such that systems will tend to increase from simple toward more complex states and will change gradually from randomly organized to stochastically organized or gravitationally deterministic states.

The two paradigms of gravitational dynamics and thermodynamics are not at odds with one another, but are complementary to one another in both a fundamental sense and in a total meta-state system of cosmology. Thermodynamics is based upon the behavior of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter, primarily in the form of heat energy, which appears to be a basic and pervasive form of thermodynamic energy in the universe. We do not yet understand the systematics of this complementariness in a complete or exact sense, but we can observe this complementary in action in many common event structures in our own solar system.

There are some cosmographical consequences of this line of thinking that have to be taken into account, even if this thinking is at odds somewhat with received theories about such matters.

It is my opinion that the earth for instance was either at one time in its early history a small solar entity that had burned out at the end of its life-span with a mostly iron core or else a part of such a system that eventually blew apart or became fragmented, possibly by collision or alternatively by the forces of counter-acting gravitational fields. Its remaining hydrogen reserves ignited and fused with oxygen that had accumulated in gaseous form to create prodigious amounts of water, the effect of which was to dramatically cool the exterior surface of the planet and to create a sedimentary buildup. The oxygen in turn would have been a gaseous element that may have been fused with either silica or sulfur in large amounts, and which was released when reduction reactions occurred in a reducing atmosphere. The oceans probably formed as an early part of the process of the formation of the planet, and provided a stabilizing system that affected the subsequent geological and later bio-geological history. It is likely that the early proto-planetoid structure of the earth, a brown extinguished dwarf star, would have at some point been captured in the gravitational system of the newly forming sun, along with many of the other planets. This capture would be seen as the consequence of the near approach of the early earth toward the newly forming sun, and would have occurred at a time when the sun coalesced in a debris field containing a higher density of such "leftover" structures than is found today. The sun would have long ago moved out of such a field, having in the process established itself in more or less its current configuration of planets, meteors and asteroids. I would make an argument therefore that most planets that exist are either the leftover shells of extinguished small stars, the subsequent history and formation of which results in a wide range of possible planetary configurations of different sizes, or was alternatively a piece of such a system that at some point fractured or exploded into smaller bits and pieces. It is unknown if explosions are an end product of stellar burnout. The leftover mass of the earth being very much smaller than the mass of the sun, which is considered a relatively average sized star, suggests that the earth may have just been a fragment of a much larger entity. Of course, it is likely as well that the skeletal remains of a star that has lost most of its hydrogen and helium to space, may be much reduced in its final stable size and mass.

The argument I make for this theory is based upon several assumptions: First and foremost, any theory of elemental evolution and development of matter must be consistent with larger cosmological theories, and must be taken into account in the understanding of the origins of physical systems.

The only known source of production of elements, especially the heavier elements of metal such as iron, are in stellar furnaces.

The sun itself would have been too young during its earlier phases of coalescence to have created the amount or variety of heavier elements that are found in the earth and the other planets.

Many debris fields, such as the rings around Saturn, appear to be the consequence of the destruction and disintegration of larger entities, either through collision, some internal explosion or through the effect of strong gravitational fields.

It is unlikely that larger field structures of "dead" and inert debris will coalesce into larger gravitational structures by themselves.

The earth would have already been formed in its primordial state, with its heavy complement of iron, at the time when the sun was just beginning to take shape.

This suggests that the galaxy as a stable system may be much older and therefore more stable than we would otherwise credit it based upon contemporary theories of stellar evolution, and that there may occur within it cyclical processes of stellar evolution, decay and stockpiling of dead matter that we do not yet clearly understand. Such dead matter may drift to certain zones of the larger structure, through which new stars may form or develop or typically pass during their earlier stages of development. New stars may form and tend to drift both outwardly and then back in towards the central regions of the galaxy, in the process, picking up at some phase of its trajectory planetoids, asteroids and other kinds of debris. If dead stars explode in their final phases, such an explosion might have the effect of redistributing and scattering most of the leftover mass of the system, including the heavy pieces, to the outer peripheries of the galactic system. Surely much of the dark matter we attribute to our calculations of the galaxy may consist of such unobservable, leftover chunks and carcasses of old dead star systems. It suggests as well that the composition and distribution of elements as we find these upon the earth and upon the other planets in our solar system is probably fairly typical and representative of the composition of other similar dead systems throughout our galaxy and in similar kinds of galaxies. The exact proportions and distributions of various elements leftover from an extinguished star-system would probably vary complexly about a complex mean. It strikes me that we would see a higher percentage of elements from intermediate to small star systems with high binding energies that fall in the intermediate range, like iron, cobalt, manganese, nickel, chromium and copper. We would see a larger number of leftover fusible elements, and a smaller number of fissionable elements which are considered less stable once the high heat-pressures required for fusion reactions have passed. The earth was originally of much greater mass than it is at this point. It is likely that its gravitational field was much stronger than today, and that it was at some point strong enough to hold hydrogen gas within its field. The earth therefore was at one time a coalescing entity that contained outer layers of hydrogen and helium gas, possibly in plasma form. It was in a sense a smoldering ember of an old star system, with most of its gases blown off or lost, retaining only a very small fraction of its original mass.

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The motional patterns of different systems in the universe appear to be different upon different scales of size of event structure, in terms of fundamental properties of space-time and energy that are associated with these patterns, and we can therefore conclude that the differential frames of reference upon which differently scaled phenomena occur have different motional outcomes for these systems.

Because the universe is infinite and open hypothetically, or related to this, is the notion that the number of levels of stratification of size-scale of event structure in the universe is unlimited as well. Though there are hypothetically no final large frames of reference in a boundless universe, and no hypothetical fundamentally smallest frames of reference, we can state that there are what can be called virtual or practical limits of size-scale that we cannot hope to see beyond or extend our understanding past. I will call these the physical event horizons of our scientific knowledge. It is at these upper and lower limits of size-scale that we may safely hypothesize a "quasi-closed" and fundamentally self-consistent system as long as we retain a relative proviso in our inference structures that states that what seems consistent on one level may well in actually be inconsistent upon some other level. I suspect for instance that upon a small scale a size is eventually reached at which the distinction between a field and a particular event-entity is inconsequential or makes little difference, and the extent of this field becomes eventually infinite. I call this the zeroth horizon and I believe that when we reach it we will reach a point of no return, or a boundary in our knowledge, beyond which only speculation and far-fetched inference can enlighten our path further. It will be at this level that we can reasonably cease the train of causal explanation, and not need to seek further deterministic explanation in terms of origins or underlying structures.

It follows that related and complementary to the idea of universal relativity is a presupposition of universal simultaneity that follows from an extension of the cosmological principle to cover all possible event structures occurring in reality. In other words, the entire universe as a total meta-system system, happens every where, and at every level of its stratification, all at the same time. There is an eternally ephemeral "now" of which we are a part, which units us with the entire physical structure of reality whether we can ever hope to directly see this larger structure or not. This sense of universal simultaneity is the foundation for extending a model of the inferential universe, or the inferable sphere of the universe, far beyond the range of our observational field of view. Though we cannot directly or immediately see the entire universe, we know in cosmological principle that it must be there, and we depend upon this assumption to make our trips to the moon and to predict the movements of stars and planets.

This inferential model of the universe provides us with a hidden structure and underlying sense of order about which we can draw several logical conclusions. In other words, in spite of the relative states of motion of the dynamic state universe, the universe as a single meta-state system exhibits certain fundamental characteristics that are non-relative and the same for all physical systems. We can say that, as a whole, the total universe, though it is dynamic and probably evolving in some irreversible direction, is as a total system complete and unchanging in its fundamental pattern of structure. Furthermore, this structure is the same everywhere, for everything. Extending the cosmological principle further, we state that this fundamental, all encompassing structure is probably isotropic, and therefore any relative physical system in a state of motion or change represents a local non-isotrop disturbance of the overall pattern. These patterns of disturbance, or what I call dynamic turbulence of the universe, can be said to nevertheless be simultaneously coordinate to the same universal frame of time, or what I call zeroth time. There is no lag between a minute ago and yesterday in the universe, except in a relative sense that different size-scale event structures occur upon different dimensionalities of time-space. Another way of thinking about this is to state that simultaneous event structure, the on-going sense of universal "now" that occurs in the universe, is not the same thing as conventional time as this is a product of our relative measurements. Now occurs on both sides of the earth simultaneously, whatever the relative time differences or the positions of the sun and the moon relative to each side.

Now occurs here and on alpha Centauri at the same instant, regardless of the lightyears that it take sto see these events. Now occurs at the scale of a neutrino, and for all neutrinos at the same "moment" as it does for all star systems. Now does not lapse five minutes later at one end of the universe compared to the other end, or at least we do not believe it does by logical inference and extension of the cosmological principle.

The sense of universal "now" suggests a hidden underlying sense of unity or structure or order to physical reality that may not have yet been taken sufficiently into account. We must take into account not the sense of unity that this universal "nowness" imposes upon the order of the universe, but the sense of disunity, or how this "nowness" may serve to keep events stratified and separated such that they occur in their own independent and relative frames of reference. If the universe were not universally synchronized in a simultaneous manner in such a way as to keep events separate and independently occurring, then we can expect that the stratification of structure of the universe could not occur in a coordinate and orderly fashion. In this case even what is in a sense isotrope chaos may exist in an organized way.

We may say that any two sets of event structures that occurs at the same time, cannot occur therefore at the same place--simultaneity assures us not only of geographical space-time stratification, but the stratification of reality into multiple levels and frames of reference. In other words, this cosmological principle of universal simultaneity may be the basis for the hypothesis of universal relativity. In the dynamic state universe, a thousand trees may fall in the forest, and it would make no difference unless two or more of these trees were close together or otherwise connected to one another. The same constraints imposed on motion, that the same system may not occur at two places or times simultaneously, demands an orderliness of event process that can be said to be unidirectional. Time flows in one direction just as things can only move in one direction at one time. There is no reversible time just as there is no instantaneously reversible motion. All motional states are relative to the non-isotrope frameworks in which they occur--they are dynamic disturbances of the background field that unifies everything at the same instantaneous moment.

The amazing synchronization of the universe can only be achieved or imagined if we presume a universal structure--this entails that we rethink our cosmological models to accommodate an expanded and inferential field of the universe that is far greater than the observable universe that is largely the product now of Einsteinian relativity. The fundamental, universal sense of order that we are talking about refers to an alternate construction of reality that allows for a sense of universal instantaneity which in turn presupposes a fundamental force or "essence" that has infinite speed and that in a sense exists outside of a temporal framework of constraint, but composes this framework that constrains all else in the universe. The entire universe ticks away by a common clock and represents a pervasive continuously unfolding instantaneous present moment. We refer to unrelated event structures in different parts of the universe that co-occur at the same moment as independence event structures, but in a sense they are not completely independent because that always occur within the same physical framework or structure, that includes the same sense off momentary instantaneity and the same principles of constraint upon motion and energy dynamics. We may correctly say that the event structures are independent because they follow the constraints of the same structure. We do not say that they follow the same sets of constraints because they are independent event structures. This is the foundation for universal relativity--within the same universal framework, all laws and mechanical dynamics of physical systems follow the same sets of constraints. There is consistent variation of this pattern that is based upon the stratification of size-scale of event structure, and this pattern variation is a function of the emergent properties that derive from the integration of physical systems upon multiple levels of articulation. Nevertheless, upon a fundamental level, all systems at all size-scales conform to the same sets of processes.

It follows therefore that what really changes, in a universally fundamental sense, is not all the motion and dynamics of relative states in the universe, but the underlying instantaneous field of the universe that simultaneously unifies and separates everything in space-time.

It is worthwhile to imagine the universe and universal simultaneity as a continuous four dimensional wave-front, like a huge continuous rubber sheet, that unfolds at every new instance of time. This sheet is bending and folding and changing shape continuously, but because we are enmeshed in it as if lost at sea, we flow along it in a continuous manner without really noticing that we are following its folds and bends except perhaps when gravitation effects influence our motions upon this rubber sheet. If we take this rubber sheet and stretch it infinitely in all directions, including widthwise, and imagine then that this sheet is continuously recreating and replacing itself through time, then we have a model that is not too different than how the actual universe seems to be.

If furthermore we imagine the texture of this stretching to consist of field-lines that stretch in all directions endless, from any potential "diminishing" point, then we have a sense of how all motions and events are embedded within and constrained by the structure of space-time.

The universal clock ticks at the same moment everywhere, for everything, because upon a fundamental level, the zeroth level, the same structure of change event is occuring everywhere at the same moment. What changes is not the structure of this underlying field, but the space-time density that is locally associated with this structure, which can be said to be gravitationally dynamic. The field only changes in that it "rolls forward" or blinks on and off continuously. It is not the inherent rate of blinking that accounts for the relativistic phenomena like time dilation, but the relative density of the blinking structure. Such "blinking" itself can be looked at as nothing but a fundamental sense of phase alternation or kind of "digital switching" between two contraposed states.

If we relate such blinking to a sense of fundamental spin, then we are speaking of some fundamental event entity that cannot be two sides at the same time, but which has two opposite sides. I can picture one possibility is a half-spin moment, or the other as a switching polarity that reverses the fundamental direction of spin clockwise-or counterclockwise. There is no reason furthermore not to assume more complex systems than binary ones, in which multiple alternate blinking structures may possibly occur.

 

We may state an alternating pattern to this kind of fundamental blinking of the zeroth field--

1. a state may be on or off (not on or alternate state) at the same "moment" of time

2. Any two adjacent states cannot both be simultaneously in the same state, but must alternate.

If follows that if and when two adjacent states somehow do both blink on or off simultaneously, then there occurs some relativistic outcome, or perturbation, of this field. Such a structure would assure us of a continuously changing or fluid field structure. In other words, it virtually guarantees an endlessly dynamic state to the total system.

If our hypothesis of complex infinity is correct, then we do not need to hypothesize a minimal time interval, or what may be called a zeroth time, as I suspect this zeroth time is essentially no interval at all, but at least relatively continuous upon some basic level. Interval structures are things we impose upon our observations. Thus on a fundamental level the universe, or the universal field that contains all reality, may not really be blinking at all, but just spinning, albeit in different directions. In this case we would modify the previous paradigm to state that from one moment to the next, the direction of spin of a hypothetical zeroth even entity changes, and no two adjacent event entities would spin in the exact same direction, or possibly in contraposed directions, whatever the case may be. In fact, in this case, we can speak of string structures or universal fieldlines that extend throughout the universe everywhere and forever, and that may be organized by a principle of universal spin-resonance. The dynamics of this field would therefore be different resonances or amplifications of these string structures in different directions.

We do not really know the structure or dynamics of the fundamental universal field. It may be that its constituent entities exhibit multi-polar spin states or alternatively complex polarities and spins that defy straightforward description. I can imagine a structure in which there are possible infinite polarities at any discrete point, as long as polarities are symmetrically balanced and occur therefore as multiples of two. Direction of propagation of energy or flow, becomes an important variable in understanding the dynamics of this structure. Gravitational unification of structures would entail a fundamental level of spin resonance amplification of local regions of the field structure about some concentric framework. Such a structure may yield up a strange structure in which space-time has a complementary or dual field structure of self-consistency and composite particularity at the same time, depending on how we observe and take into account this structure. I refer to the intermediate form of this complementary structure as the sthring or spring theory of space-time.

We must see the flow dynamics and possible patterning of this kind of space-time construct from the standpoint of non-linear control theory and dynamics and we can see alternating state-path trajectories of these dynamics depending upon the pattern of flow within space-time.

It is evident that all four known forms of energy--light, strong, weak and gravitation, may represent only varying resonance states. These appear to be periodic processes that have quantum form. What is lacking at this point is a central theory of the fundamental structure of the universal field that can successfully account for the four different forms of energy in a systematic manner, as well as integrate this account with a larger geometrical construct of space-time in a systematic manner. Though we lack such a systematic theory at this time, this does not preclude development of a comprehensive understanding of the physical structure of reality and of the structure of the universe as a meta-state system, or what I would call a theoretical basis of the inferential system.

Description and explanation of the universal field relates to the theory of universal relativity if we understand that all things of the universe, all events, are not only embedded in this universal field, but are a part of this field in an intrinsic sense. Upon a fundamental level therefore mass objects and light energy do not exist as entities separate and fundamentally different from the space-time that contains it and constrains them, but they are isomorphic in structure, or follow what can be called the principle of universal equivalence. We can see that the conceptions of a universal field and universal relativity relate and come together on the framework of universal equivalence. We can see that it is the embeddedness and intrinsic isomorphism of structure which creates the foundation for universal relativity. All motions and events must heed certain contraints that are relative to the level of integration that these events occur upon. We see that the principle of universal simultaneity also hinges on this conception. The constraints of inertia, of the speed of light, and gravitation constrain all motion and movement in a simultaneous construct, and prevent this construct from in a sense collapsing upon itself.

It further assures us that the universe of ten years ago or a trillion years ago cannot be the same as the universe of today. The universe can be said to be infinitely dynamic and complex, such that it recreates itself in a fundamentally new and unique way with each passing instant. The universe has been "evolving" in a manner that may be leading to increasing dynamics and dynamic differentials that are the result of increasingly dense and concentrated centers of gravitational attraction. There may have been an early phase when the universe was more or less homogeneously and evenly spread out and rarefied as a zeroth "singularity"--an infinitely flate and smooth landscape that was physically undifferentiated in all directions. This is a completely opposite model of a hot-big bang cosmogeny. The universe is evolving toward a long-term phase of increasing concentrations of mass density and a continuous stockpiling off energy in the form of mass and supermass.

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The basis for a theory of the dynamic state universe is to make a claim for the basic dynamic substrate of the physical reality composing reality. I would append a fifth law of thermodynamics and state that in physical reality, there can be no perfect energy vacuums. An energy vacuum would consist of a measurable quantity of space-time which was totally absent of any form of electromagnetic radiation. Such an energy vacuum would be the opposite of the concept of the universal energy sink, and would exist at a temperature of absolute zero. There would be no leakage to or from this system to the larger background field which contains this system. In other words, this law states that any such vacuum would be impossible because it would be composed of this background field in the first place, and hence it would always at least be a part of the universal energy sink. It would be impossible to completely prevent thermodynamic or heat energy from either entering or exiting such a system, and, it is possible as well that residual electromagnetic energy would be generated within the system itself in a spontaneous manner. It is this third point that I am most interested in proving or disproving, as it holds to the key to unlocking the problem of the origins of the universe and its basic structural patterning.

The point of this digression is to suggest that where there is gravitational turbulence and motion of space-time, there will be as well the presence of a minimal amount of thermodynamic energy that is inherent to the spin-vibrational dynamics and mechanics of space-time, and hence space-time naturally emits a very low level of heat radiation as a kind of perfect black-body radiator. This infrared radiation is part and parcel of the background universal thermodynamic energy sink, and it may be the source of the red-shifted microwave background that is observable uniformly throughout space. We can state therefore that where we obtain the conditions of absolute zero, we must also simultaneously obtain conditions of absolute gravitational rest.

Because we cannot prevent or block the exchange dynamics within any system to the outside manifold containing that system, we cannot block either the influence of gravitational dynamics or of thermodynamics upon such a system. Any such system achieves a form of complex equilibrium between inputs and outputs of both gravitational and thermodynamic energy, and even an exchange between these types of energy.

The cosmological principle must be expanded therefore to include a model of non-empty space-time that constitutes the universal energy field and that behaves as a perfect black-body radiator. Though this radiation is negligible and slight in comparison to the radiation of stars and even of small planets like earth, it is in a cumulative sense great enough to have given rise to the formation of mass-based systems in the first place. Though thermodynamic energy is forever escaping, as a non-linear dynamic system, it may be structured in various ways that allows for such systems to follow alternative state-path trajectories leading to concentration rather than diffusion--in other words temporary working systems with concentrative or converging properties may develop in the folds of space-time that permit enough light energy to collect for the purposes of the breeding of hydrogen nucleons, the result of which would be the formation of hydrogen clouds, which in fact are found to be ubiquitous if not quite pristine at this stage of the universe's development. Under certain circumstances, gravitational vortices or von Karmen trails of turbulence may arise, like giant hurricanes, which provide the structural basis for the formation of white-sources, very intense concentrations of pure light that give rise to the production of massive amounts of hydrogen, helium, and possibly the formation of even larger nuclei in the surrounding regions. These white sources may be relatively short-lived affairs on a cosmological chronology, but still by our own earthbond standards they might last for thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years.

In this regard space-time has self-mass, but this mass is evenly distributed throughout and represents a form of gravitational potential rather than as solid-mass. It is nearly perfectly transparent to light-energy as well as gravitational radiation. Hence it is invisible. It is a form of distributed mass rather than concentrative mass. The inertial and mechanical effects of mass in space-time are in fact the interaction between the mass of space-time and the concentrated mass of objects of matter. The basis of this interaction is the isomorphism of their basic structures at the level of their spime field relations.

It follows that we must expand the principle of equivalence to include the equivalence between mass and space-time, or spime, and that when we convert mass to energy via thermonnuclear reactions and pathways, we are simultaneously converting some of this back into the foundation of space-time, either directly or indirectly through blackbody recapture. It follows that the primary source and cause of red-shift is this loss of inertia of light as a result of its long-term trajectory and interaction with the space-time manifold through which it travels. At this level the Einstein shift is practically the same as red-shift, as the gravitational fields that produce Einstein shift are part and parcel of the larger space-time fields the result in red-shift.

Light does not travel through a vacuum or freely through space-time, and this conclusion suggests the possibility that the speed of light as a constant in a vacuum is in fact the inherent inertial resistance of space-time to the straight-line or geodesic motion of light energy. It is the inherent self-energy potential of a photon of light that, like the motion of any object in space, remains constant in speed and direction unless acted upon by some outside perturbing force of resistance. We may maintain that light is relatively insoluble in space-time, but it retains an extremely slight solubility constant that assures that some of its energy passes back to the fold of space-time upon its trajectory through the universe. The stronger the gravitational field density, the greater would be this solubility index, to the extent that in some extremely strong gravitational systems, light is completely absorbed into the structure of space-time. It would be completely converted in this case to gravitational radiation, which would be released from the system in constant, equivalent amounts, and which would then be returned back to the fold of space-time itself.

It follows as well that whereever we find the essential physical substance of the universe, spime, we will find both gravitational and thermodynamic energy interacting in various ways and to various degrees. This interaction is inevitable and may be seen as the consequence of the intrinsic motional dynamics of space-time itself, which exhibits a kind of Brownian motion. The various states of equilibrium that can be achieved in relation to semi-closed systems are interesting to study as well as the possible pathways of the exchange dynamics of such systems.

The paradigms of the laws of thermodynamics and the laws of gravitational dynamics both imply that there cannot be a completely closed system, and we can conclude by deduction that therefore the universe as a whole meta-state system is probably open and therefore infinite in extent. It cannot be otherwise because we cannot therefore explain the loss of energy to an unknown energy sink that contains the universe. If we apply these laws consistently as an intrinsic part of a larger cosmological principle, we see that no completely closed systems are possible in nature. Only the universe as a whole may be considered a relatively closed system because it can be said to be a self-containing or totally self-consistent system--all infinite systems can be said to be infinitely self-containing systems.

The central hypothesis is therefore that otherwise and apparently empty space-time continuously emits a form of thermodynamic heat radiation at a very low level of incidence, and that this same field also continuously reabsorbs this form if energy also at a very low level of incidence. The equilibrium of exchange of light or gravitational radiation and space-time under normal conditions of empty-space-time is so low as to be virtually undetectable except in terms of theoretical considerations which make it necessary. In other words, in the physical universe, we cannot have a perfect energy vacuum, and where we have one form of energy, we have the other form as well.

The conclusion is therefore that gravitational and electromagnetic energies are completely complementary to one another though they exhibit different effects and properties and have different, almost opposite consequences, and though gravitational radiation appears as part of a complex exchange system involving other kinds of gravitational effects. It is my contention that under certain conditions of concentration of space-time, gravitational radiation and thermodynamic radiation normally interact and are exchanged for one another. The continuous heat at the core of the earth is the consequence of this gravitational exchange and conversion of gravitational energy, expressed in the form of continuous pressure from the tremendous build up of mass, into thermodynamic radiation which is then passed out of the system.

 

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The basis for the claim of universal relativity lies in the statement that there can exist in physical reality no non-relative or absolute frames of reference by which the parameters of space and time, and the principles of motion and inertia, are not a function of the relative frame that these measures occur within. In other words, any measure of mass, energy, direction, velocity or space or time that we may make in the physical universe, will be made relative to the frame of reference it occurs within, and this frame of reference itself is relative to some larger frame or sets of frames of reference. What appears stable and absolute at one level or frame of reference, will appear dynamic and relative in some larger frame of reference. From this we can conclude the following:

There are no final or total frames of reference by which all other frames can be evaluated or standardized. There is neither a grand total frame of reference encompassing all other frames, nor is there any smallest frame of reference that will be totally encompassed by all other frames.

Frames of reference are stratified in a hierarchical manner, such that smaller frames of reference, or "systems," are relative to larger frames of reference, which in turn are relative to even larger frames, and so on ad infinitum.

It appears at this time, from our observational sphere, that the frame of reference at any level is characterized primarily by the concept or the condition I would refer to as "gravitational unification." In other words, within that given frame, at whatever scale we may define, all parametric values or measures that are relevant to the description of a physical system are "coordinate" within that system, and from that standpoint, the frame of reference appears fixed.

The theoretical basis of physical systems theory stems from several basic observations of the physical universe and the presupposition of the cosmological principle, that what is true for our observational sphere of physical reality, holds true in all parts of the knowable physical universe. In other words, a fundamental framework of universal relativity holds that the fundamental laws that govern the relation and behavior of things in our observational corner of the universe, hold true in all corners of the universe, within the same universal frame of reference. This may or may not prove to be the case in the largest sense, but, for the sake of the unification and coherence of our science, we assume that it holds true in a significant and basic way for most of the universe.

The obverse side of the application of the cosmological principle to a consideration of the larger scope and size of the universe, is that, though the same basic laws physical reality may apply equally in all sectors of the vast region of the universe, it appears as well that in the largest frame of reference the patterning of the universe is non-isotropic in that it follows no sense of overarching order or pattern, but at some regional level its patterning breaks down into random and stochastically determined directions.

It is not impossible to call into question both these fundamental tenets of the cosmological principle--to hypothesize that in the larger frame, basic rules and principles that appear to hold in our own observational fields are different or no longer apply in the same manner, and conversely, that in the largest scale of measurement--the cosmological scale--there may in fact be some general sense of isotropism of pattern that we, in our locally bounded view, cannot or have not yet noticed. But again, for the sake of our science, we assume that the cosmological principle will hold for most of the universe that is connected, more or less remotely, to our own corner. In the largest frame of reference available to us, we assume that the rules and principles that order physical reality as we experience it apply with equal validity and force in all other frames to which we might be connected, however indirectly.

Another way of stating this concept of universal relativity of gravitational systems is to state a principle something like the following:

There are no non-relative gravitational frames of reference.

Such a concept implies the validity of the cosmological principle in both senses--in the largest since, we can find no final limit or absolute boundary to the universe by which all other frames become oriented. This implies as well, among other things, that the universe is a non-zero state system and that it is encompassed or encompasses and infinite number of nested gravitational frames of reference. If there were an overarching universal frame of reference, then there would be some non-relative set of constants that would apply to all frames. The only two sets of constants that might fit such a description are the speed of light, or c, and what is known as the gravitational constant, or k. These are related, among other things, to the Planck constant.

Universal relativity implies as well the concept of the relative independence of frames that are contained within larger frames, such that the motions and measures serving to define a sub-system, are independent of the motions and measures defining the larger system that the sub-system is contained within. A subsystem is also independent of other subsystems that are not directly related to that system in a gravitational hierarchy.

The concept of relative gravitational frames of reference invites further speculation about the relativistic structure of physical reality. It is a case that relative gravitational frames of reference define units as subsystems that are in effect separate from the larger systems that contain them--fundamental relations within the frame are determined--the clocks and yard sticks are predefined in their increments by the relative gravitational fields that determine and define the system, and that delimit the system as separate and unique. These systems are marked almost invariably by some focal center of gravity that, at least in a local sense, is predominant, even though other background gravitational forces may still be found and felt to exist.

It seems that the essential question is how exactly does gravitation accomplish this kind of pattern and relativistic ordering in the universe--how can local gravitational istropisms override much larger and more powerful gravitational systems, in effect nullifying their effects within the local system such that this local system proceeds independently in its own state-path trajectory.

There is a clear sense that with gravitational attraction and radiation, that the former kind of cohesive force is most powerful locally, and quickly diminishes with distance from its center. The cumulative power of this local attraction of gravity may be much weaker than a larger range, more pervasive force that is defined by gravitational radiation from distant gravitating sources, but it seems to override this distant force, or set of forces emanating for divergent multiple sources, at least within a local frame of reference. Outside or beyond the boundaries of such a system, which might be referred to as the escape limits of a gravitational system, broader and more diffuse forces emanating from distant but even more powerful sources take over and become significant.

Several caveats can be concluded from these kinds of observations:

1. First, it is likely that space-time in any particular instance can only be oriented in one way, or set to one system, at any one time, and resetting space-time entails a sense of disequilibrium and an abrupt departure from a sense of local equilibrium. In other words, any area of space-time can be only oriented in one specific direction at one time, or else disequilibrium of space-time will result and will be resisted. This isotropic property of space-time is determined by the dominant gravitational source that serves to constrain and delimit that area of space-time as a part of dynamic system.

2. Second, of alternative distant sources of gravitation, it appears that the strongest source will achieve predominance in creating a concentric center of gravity of the entire system about itself. If we are to seek the strongest gravitational source for any system, then we must look to the center of the system to find the most massive and gravitationally powerful object. Another way of stating this is something like the following--there is a clear gravitational hierarchy and a competition among gravitational bodies for attractants--clearly the strongest survive and the weaker bodies become subservient or bound to the dominant body. In this sense we can see a clear sense of order in the cosmographical distribution of the physical universe.

3. There is a third caveat possible, and I believe it goes something like this. Should two bodies of relatively equal gravitational power come into proximity with one another, without collision, then it is likely that the two bodies will enter into a kind of spatial waltz or pirouette about a commonly defined virtual center of gravity that is defined as some midpoint between the two systems at which point the gravitational attraction of one object precisely cancels that of the other object. Such a system is probably anomalous in the universe, but not uncommon in occurrence, and it is possible that it leads to interesting outcomes.

These characteristics point of a certain duality about gravitational fields, which allegedly pre-structure and determine the istropic and relativistic properties of the local space-time continuum in which they occur. First, gravitational fields are defined by a form of gravitational radiation that, like electromagnetic radiation, is far reaching and in essence may be almost "instantaneous." We get from this the notion of "action at a distance" the result of which is a form of "remote attraction." Secondly, in a local framework, gravitational radiation appears to shape and orient the space-time manifold in certain discrete and directional ways, leading to the creation of gravity systems that serve to cause falling bodies to light to earth. This second force is strongest at its most proximate coordinates, and appears to dissipate rapidly with any great distance, to the point of becoming negligible or even nullified by the range of divergent gravitational forces emanating from a variety of alternative host bodies in deeper space.

This apparent duality of patterning of gravitation has, I believe, critical significance for a theory of gravitation and gravitational unification of space-time.

Another interesting facet of the notion of relative gravitational frames of reference is that though each frame can be said to be locally independent of other alternative frames of which it is composed, or with which it coexists, or of which it is a part, nevertheless all gravitational frames of reference at all levels appear to be integrated in a fairly seamless and smooth web of forces and attractions, such that the transition to one frame to another is one that is largely unnoticed except perhaps for the feeling of certain inertial forces. The challenge is understanding how such a plethora of different local gravitational systems can become effectively integrated as part of larger systems, as if they were not independent frames, but fully subordinate frames, while at the same time retaining the relative independence of their own internal frame of reference. We obviously notice the sun's light far more than we notice its gravity--if we throw an apple into the sky--it does not start flying to the sun, but falls back to the earth as if the sun were nothing but a neutral bystander--and from a gravitational standpoint of anything that is within our earthbound frame of reference, it is indeed only a giant heat generator and light bulb for the earth.

The question is to understand how the universe becomes gravitationally integrated and unified as a single composite system, regardless of all the local isotropisms and the countless subsystems that are defined independently within it. Needless to say there must occur a vast interstitial network of space-time fabric, relatively devoid of any matter, which serve as gravitational transition zones between different gravitational bodies, which serve to both unite and separate these different systems as both separate and as part of a larger system. These interstitial zones are undoubtedly defined by relative distances between gravitational systems, but they may also be defined by other properties--perhaps a turbulence or inter-tidal zone of gravitational neutralization at which competing gravitational waves from distant alternative sources basically interfere with one another rin a destructive manner, canceling one another out and essentially rendering the space as if it were without gravity from any particular source. If this is the case, such inter-space should not be seen as the smooth and calm space without any disequilibrium, but more like a sea of cross-cutting eddies and waves that clash and crash into one another and broil in all different directions at the same time.

 

 

For instance, on earth, we do not notice the motion of the earth in its rotation or orbit around the sun except for the passages of the sun and the moon and the gradual changing of the seasons. We can see the motion of ourselves and earthbound bodies in the earth--a car or train moving relative to ourselves. But these earthbound motions become unified and irrelevant to the motion of the earth about the sun. Similarly, we do not notice the motion of the sun or the solar system about the Milky Way galaxy. In fact, we may as a system be traveling in almost an infinite number of directions, at an infinite number of different velocities, without our knowing it.

To the next larger frame, a gravitational system is unified if all its parts occur as a single system to the larger frame. The solar system would appear as a single system from the point of view of a distant star, even though from the point of view of the earth, it appears to be a complex set of motions of a number of planets and lesser bodies about the sun.

In this regard, we may speculate upon the following kind of proposition:

In any given gravitational frame of reference, the net cumulative value of all larger scale frames of reference is gravitationally zero.

We might say that an infinite number of independent motions in the universe has a reverse unification affect in relation to the immediate gravitational system, such that all motions tend in the largest sense to cancel one another out and to appear fixed. Similarly, we can say that any set of nested subsystems of a given gravitational system that is unified, appears as a single unity within that system, and thus their net cumulative value in relation to the larger frame of reference they occur within are also zero.

Then we might go one step further and speculate on something like the following:

The value of the immediate gravitational frame of reference is zero less the net inertial forces involved in the motion and dynamics of the local system.

In other words, we understand the relative parameters of any local system in terms of its net deviation from the zero-equilibrium established by its gravitational frame of reference. All higher or lower orders of motion are canceled out. We can say that a system achieves relative gravitational equilibrium within the larger frame of reference when its net deviations from zero-equilibrium become non-dynamic or do not change unless affected by agencies external to the system. Such systems will tend to indefinitely preserve their established patterns of motion in a stable manner.

We might speculate as well that gravitational unification upon any and in theory every local level, implies gravitational relativity on the universal or grand scale, just as the relative independence of nested frames of reference implies a lack of non-relative frames on a grand scale.

In terms of gravitational unification of subsystems, we can see that the center of gravity for any subsystem becomes the key defining point of consideration for the system as a unity in relation to the next larger system the at it occurs within. Another way of looking at this is that gravitational unification is the result of, or alternative results in, the creation of a common center of gravity by which all known sub-elements become achieve relative gravitational equilibrium.

Such a system of gravitational frames of reference implies a kind of well system of nested gravitational frames of reference, such that locally concentrated gravitational centers that occur locally are part of deeper and broader systems that are locally less powerful, but cumulatively much greater. The gravitational field exists as a kind of well system of energies in which the relative strength or frequency to possible wavelength of gravitational energy exists along a gradient of increasing speeds. I would hypothesize that these speeds all tend to be greater than the speed of light.

It is also the case that random, locally anomalous motions can occur within gravitationally unified systems to fundamentally alter the equilibrium of the system. The entire system can be seen to be stochastically chaotic in the sense that perturbations in one part of a system can result in resonating reverberations in other remote regions of such a system. Systems may be responding to such anomalous patterns without our realizing it, unless, like a meteorite crashing in from space, they intrude in a real way upon our immediate frame of reference itself. It is unlikely but not to imagine the possibility of our sun eventually crashing into another solar system, or of two galaxies or clusters coming to occupy a common ground. This is a consequence of the relative independence of all systems, such that the gravitational unification of one system does not directly effect the unification of any alternate subsystem that is occurring simultaneously in some other region.

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Gravitational unification implies another principle that may have profound implications for the system as a whole. Universal relativity rests upon a hypothetical notion that I will refer to as the principle of Universal Simultaneity. The concept of universal simultaneity is logically demanded by the cosmological principle of universal relativity if we accept certain things as being true:

The principle of universal simultaneity is important if we are to construe a physical universe that exists in some kind of real time and space. This concept is lost sight of in general relativity theory that sets the parameters of the speed of light as somehow the ultimate limit and measure of distances in the universe.

1. The universe occurs everywhere at the same time in an instantaneous manner. This is what we can refer to as the "instantaneous universe." Even if the total instantaneous universe is beyond our ability to see, we must surmise based upon observational evidence that the instantaneous universe exists.

2. The relativity of time within an instantaneous universe is merely the change of parametric scale of the system depending upon the gravitational frame of reference the clock occurs within. Time dilation that is a consequence of relativity theory is a natural outcome of the changing scale by which time would be measured.

The paradox of this is that in the largest scale imaginable, the instantaneous universe would be considered to be eternally frozen or in a sense time-less. Time on the largest scale would have no value. Time is only a measure of, and measured in terms of, local or regional frames of reference of subsystems.

Universal simultaneity implies an important relationship of absolute distance, which states that no matter how fast a vehicle or line of communication between two distant objects in the universe, the distance between these objects is always absolute and fixed within the frame of reference that it occurs. This is an important principle that maintains the spatial order and relations of things in the universe, and determines that the universe cannot instantaneously collapse upon itself or radically alter its spatial patterning unless some outside set of forces is brought to bear upon this patterning.

Temporal dilation and spatial contraction/expansion is evidence of the relative independence of different gravitational frames of reference that affect subsystems. An object traveling close to the speed of light occupies a different gravitational frame of reference compared to a similar object that is traveling the pace of a snail.

The principle of universal simultaneity must be regarded as an important concept in the understanding of the hypothetical universe, as it states in general terms that a substantive physical universe can and must exist beyond the relativistic boundaries determined by our own light-based spheres of observation. In other words, we cannot see or guess the exact instantaneous disposition of the total universe at this moment or the next, when all we can see is light from stars that is thousands, millions or billions of years old. Nevertheless, because of the observational relativity of our light, we do not necessarily conclude that the instantaneous universe cannot or does not exist. We infer its existence, and it becomes part of what can be called the "inferrable Universe" that exists beyond the boundaries of the "observable Universe"

The principle of universal simultaneity has other important implications to our understanding of the hypothetical and inferable universe. First, it leads us to believe that though there may be no non-relative frames of gravitational reference in any grand cosmological sense, there must be some larger and larger frame of reference for the universe as a whole within which we may come to understand even the non-isotropic juxtaposition of its many subsystems. In other words, the instantaneous universe must be held together, or gravitationally unified by some means, even if it is the default of a lack of a central gravitational frame of reference in shared space-time, and even though we may not be able to directly observe such unification. Even the hot-big bang model implicitly suggests a scheme of the grand unification of the universe in terms of its expansion and possible contraction. This is linked to the relative isotropic curvature of space-time.

In an instantaneous universe, both time and space become meaningless or non-relative parameters. An instantaneous universe would encompass all simultaneously, and time would be immeasurable and therefore meaningless. Like the related principle of Singularity, the principle of universal Simultaneity suggests some kind of absolute end state or non-relative frame of reference. We may or may not accept such a principle. It may be the case that real systems may approach such absolute conditions to an infinite degree, but never obtain them. In other words, the principle of Universal Simultaneity exists as a possibility, as a possibility demanded by the instantaneous patterning of the inferable universe, but it may not exist as anything more than such a possibility. It may be ultimately an unrealizable possibility that is there because it is inherent to the structural order of the universe in the most basic of senses.

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The question of universal simultaneity of an inferable universe suggests that in the largest sense the universe may be in fact what I have referred to as a "dynamic state" universe. A dynamic state universe can be looked upon as infinite. In a universe in which there occurs no non-relative states, the only true absolute possible is that of change itself. In other words, in such a universe, everything is changing continuously, on its own scale, relative to its own gravitational frame of reference. Isotropic unification of systems can only be achieved in some relative and local sense. A dynamic state universe would suggest that even constants like the gravitational constant may be changing at its own rate in its own way.

A way of stating the implications of a dynamic-state universe is to state the following conditions that might apply:

1. There are no non-variable constants in a dynamic state universe.

2. There are no discontinuous or discrete states separate from alternate states in a dynamic state universe.

Whatever constants we might wish to apply to a dynamic state universe, we must realize the possibility that in some larger frame of reference, those properties that might appear to be constant and unchanging may be in fact alterable and quite variable.

All variables that are subject to change do so in a continuous and steady manner--in other words, we can have no discontinuous or sudden disruptions in a dynamic state universe, which implies that the universe should change from one state to the next without apparent connection between subsequent states.

A dynamic state universe therefore comes to imply a general model of the universe that is in continuous transition or flux at all levels, even at the most basic levels. It suggests that the very principles and laws that govern the universe from one state or stage to the next may vary continuously in ways we do not yet understand. Evidence has been interpreted suggesting that the gravitational constant is weakening, and that the overall force of gravitation in the universe is weakening, such that all forms of matter, and perhaps space-time itself, is gradually expanding, albeit in relativistic ways. Regardless of such theoretical interpretations, it remains the case that we still do not understand the basic patterns or processes or properties that govern the universe. In this regard we must ask how much the speed of light, as a constant that is central to the Einsteinian theories of relativity, may not in fact be, in some general frame of reference, a variable that is a defining characteristic of our own physical and observational limits in the universe.

In consideration of a dynamic state universe, it is important to contrast this with the conception of a fundamentally static-state universe--a universe that in some basic sense does not change and remains permanently unalterable. We may state a third precept of a dynamic state universe, the inference that:

3. In a dynamic state universe, there is nothing that is permanent in an absolute sense.

This last point suggests that matter as we know it may be a function of a phase or period of development of the larger universe--however stable we may presume protons or other essential particles to be, it is possible that in the long run the total ratio and composition of matter in the universe may change in some irreversible direction.

This last point is important because it defines change as uni-directional and as inherently irreversible. We see this in several principles relating to space and time. Motion is always unidirectional in an instantaneous sense, and such motion is always nonreciprocal. Similarly, clocks always move in one direction, but never in reverse, at least in what we can refer to as a hypothetical positive state universe. The unidirectionality of all change processes, whether this is entropic decay or the motion of objects in space or the passage of time, suggests that change processes are dimensionally constrained in some complex manner that we do not yet understand. This issue becomes important when we consider the possibility of multi-dimensional or parallel universal realities that simultaneously coexist with one another.

Alternative State Universes

Alternative cosmological models and hypothetical universes

Nomenclatural issues

Complex versus simple models--undetermined versus over-determined models

Linear versus non-linear models

Multi-dimensional versus unidimensional models

Non-Zero versus Zero State Universes

Finite versus Infinite State Universes

Self-consistent versus Meta-State Universes

Isotropic versus Non-isotropic Universes

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The basis for an alternative conceptioning of physical systems stems from several observations of our own physical reality:

1. Gravitational radiation, and its effects within gravitational systems, appears to be not only ubiquitous and omnipotent in the universe, but these systems appear to last forever without significant alteration or change.

2. The first of these observations is that though the laws of thermodynamics appear to be inviolable, on a basic level the energy of gravitation does not appear to follow these principles in any strict sense. Gravity systems appear continuous and unending for the life of the body of the source of gravitation. This energy appears never to diminish to any significant level.

3. The only known mechanism for the production of chemical elements occur in the physical fusion processes inside of stars. We can speculate and hypothesize on many other alternative systems for the production of matter, but scientifically speaking we can only isolate one general set of pathways for that production, and this set of pathways, as found in our own sun, appear to be ubiquitous and all pervasive in the universe "as far as the eye can see."

4. Stars as solar furnaces appear to live, on average, for a very long time, and hence they appear to be quite stable and long-lived even though such life-spans are contraindicated by their size. In fact, the larger the star system, the shorter its expected life-trajectory, the smaller the size, the longer lived and more stable it is expected to be. The finite energy stores in their mass cannot explain the long term dynamics of heat and energy production of such systems unless unknown mechanisms can be invoked.

There is a possibility that ancient star-systems were on average smaller systems and longer-lived systems than subsequent generations of stars. I would make a claim that the earth may have once been a brown dwarf star in a previous star-system the core of which turned completely to iron, the most nuclearly stable and "cold" element on the periodic table--a core nonetheless enriched with a full range of elements. These ancient systems eventually burned out and have populated the universe in far greater numbers and densities that we realize. They have piled up, or stock-piled as a result of their continuous production. They were replaced by the gradual accumulation of larger and larger star systems that were the second or subsequent generation consequence of the accumulation of basic hydrogen-helium gas in large cloud formations throughout the universe. These burned out stars were recaptured as planets or reabsorbed into these newer, larger star systems. Many would have met their fate crushed in complex gravitational fields or striking one another and breaking apart into smaller asteroid systems. The universe would be filled with these dead bodies of matter that would drift about until recaptured in some gravitational system.

Any very large and early white-source systems burned out a very long time ago, and the only traces of these might be visible in increasing frequencies at very great depths of our observational sphere of the universe.

In such a manner, over the very long frame of time, matter would be gradually and continuously created, distributed, partially destroyed, recreated and redistributed countless times over in a grand system of recycling. Large formations of hydrogen-helium clouds would form and drift about the universe, and these would yield new star-systems and in time complete galaxies, which must be seen as very long enduring systems that probable pass through numerous solar cycles and that probably have their own developmental trajectories that would allow us to give relative ages to different galactic systems based upon their form and their sequential stage of development. We must expect at the origin of most spiral galaxies one or more massive black-holes. Hydrogen-helium clouds originally coalesced from primordial white-sources and from the accumulation of background radiation in gravitational vortices would be subsequently fed by the hydrogen that is regularly ejected from current star-systems, and hence the density of these formations would increase along with their extensive size.

Space-time yields gravitational energy yields light energy yields electron-positron fields yields hydrogen-helium clouds yields early star systems yields older star systems yields dead matter systems. Accumulation older star systems and dead matter systems would increase the gravitational turbulence of space-time, which in turn would feedback to the original phase of the cycle. Feedback would occur at practically every point in this system.

 

In this model, we can see the principle pathways of energy exchange that occur in the universe, and we can see as well that there will be an accumulation of matter/mass in the form of dead matter and black holes that can be thought to be relatively stable gravitational forms. Eventually, there should be a build up of the number and relative size of black holes, excepting the redistribution of energy into the space-time manifold primarily in the form of gravitational radiation and possibly as space-time itself. We would expect therefore to see the universe increase over time in its gravitational organization around larger and larger black hole systems, and thus the universe is not only increasingly dynamic, but may be said to be increasingly integrated over time as well. The mosaic of patches or cluster-cells of space-time pockets will coalesce in time into larger and larger unified gravitational systems about tremendous black-hole structures. As the universe becomes increasingly organized and thus stratified, it can be expected that the conditions that gave rise to the system in the first place, namely the frequency of "white sources" would become increasingly rare, and hence the relative amount of pristine hydrogen produced in the space-time field would decrease in relation to the increased production of secondary hydrogen and its reabsorption into denser star and post-star formations.

Light does not, and cannot in theory, escape the total universe, nor does gravitational radiation, because there occurs in the larger framework of the total system infinite red-shift, just as occurs locally about a black-hole structure. This redshift is not due to any single gravitational field or even a multitude of gravitational fields, but as a consequence of the inherent gravitational potential of the space-time manifold itself. Because the physical substrate of space-time may be said to be infinitely rarefied compared to the density of black-holes, we can say that this infinite red-shift occurs over infinite distances. The red-shifting that is observed over vast distances, that is part of the Hubble constant, is accountable in these broadest terms. The greater the distances involved, the greater the degree of red-shift that can be expected in the escaping light of the system. At infinite distances, such light would be expected to be infinitely red-shifted, and hence reabsorbed into the manifold of space-time. This leads one to conclude that light comes from all sources, and that if we had instruments refined enough, we would be capable of observing infinitely or near-infinitely red-shifted light from the furthest edges of the universe even from the vantage point of the earth. Very large parallax systems, developed in near space in the solar system, may provide us eventually with the resolution we would need to make these kinds of observations.

Observationally speaking, the theory I propose above would be verifiable if certain kinds of experiments can be successfully conducted. If we could detect the production of hydrogen in intense light fields, or we could detect the spontaneous emission of light energy in space-time, then this alone would be enough evidence to vindicate this alternative theory of the structure of physical reality. It may be possible at this time to observe conditions of near absolute zero in the universe, and under conditions of gravitational manipulation or change, to detect a change in the near-zero temperatures. We can hypothetically conclude that space-time by itself, as a perfect conventional vacuum, would not exist at absolute zero nor at absolute rest.

It is possible to hypothesize that we cannot have in physical reality a perfect vacuum of either gravitational energy or of thermodynamic energy, and that if a vacuum of one form were achieved, then it would concomitantly imply a vacuum of the other form as well.

We can see that the gravitational and thermodynamic fields are interwove and inextricably bound up with one another--increasing motional turbulence of one is correlated with increasing temperatures in the other. In this broad model, therefore, temperature and heat is the thermodynamic equivalent of gravitational motion and pressure, and because they are equivalent, under certain conditions they are interchangeable. I would claim that they are always interchangeable, but the conversion quotient varies depending upon the conditions of relative motional turbulence/heat. At one extreme, we have the vastness of the "empty" space-time of the total universe itself. At the other extreme we have the infinite densities of black hole structures. Between these two extremes range a variety of possible alternative states and conditions with associated properties and various possible state-path trajectories.

The entire structure of the current state of the universe with its rising dynamics can be said to have developed from a state of zeroth singularity at the convergence point of absolute-zero/absolute rest.

 

 

Hypothetically, a perfect energy vacuum cannot exist in the universe, except possibly in the smallest imaginable or calculable point size for the briefest of measurable moments. At the fundamental scale, tiny vacuum holes may indeed occur, and thus if we are to search for the boundaries of the universe, we must seek such boundaries intensively rather than in any extensive sense. If such holes exist, the sponge nature of space-time, then their frequency and density can be expected to increase with increasing rarefication of space-time, and decrease with increasing concentration of space-time structure in the form of black-hold supermatter. It may well be the relative densities of these "gaps" in the fabric of physical reality that account for the relativistic periodic change effects we observe in physical systems. It is possible for instance that light travels relatively "freely" and transparently through empty space-time because it is more capable of exploiting these gaps or holes in physical reality. The structure of physical reality, even if riddled with such holes, would be that of a combined gravitational-thermodynamic energy field in which one form of basic energy gave rise and necessitated the coexistence of the other.

If this model is correct, then the universe is open and infinite in an extensive sense, though not in an intensive sense. A level would be reached in reduced size-scale that all physical periodic processes would either race to infinite speed or come to a complete stop--at that point absolute nothingness would be reached, and we would have our perfect energy vacuum. We can imagine a universe that may be expanding in terms of its fundamental structure, with the "quintessence" of space-time continuously attempting to fill in its own gaps, as demanded by the laws of thermodynamics and gravitational dynamics. The occurrence of super-conducting phenomena near absolute zero suggests such a possibility. Light would propagate through empty space-time in a near super-conducting manner. On the other hand, on a large scale, the universe is infinite and cannot expand except in an infinite sense of an infinitely large system growing larger. Outside of gravitationally stable structures in the universe, no matter how large, we should not at this time try to guess second guess the characteristics or structure of the intervening space-time. Where fundamental "hole" structures may be large and frequent, the normal dimensions of space-time that we understand may be relativistically altered in such a way that we cannot make a straight line measurement between this galaxy and the next. If we were to travel to these regions ourselves, we of course would carry our own space-time manifold with us, but this manifold might find itself caught in a vast empty sea of relative nothingness. I can see time itself standing-still in such places. We may not notice such a stand-still ourselves with our clocks on board--everything might appear normal. But to an observer from earth, we might appear to be trapped and frozen in the same place for what would amount to an infinite amount of earth time.

This suggests a varying and non-uniform isotrope curvature of space-time, depending upon its relative densities of its energy fields. We should not suppose that space-time has any form of consistent curvature one way or another. We can suppose that in the largest context, the total curvature of the universe cancels itself out and would thus be considered to be isotropically flat in the large and the long run.

If the fundamental structure of the physical universe can be said to be "porous" then it is possible that at a fundamental or 'zeroth' level time becomes fundamentally indeterminate. We would expect at this level that time would move forward not on an even front, but in a choppy, uneven manner. If this were the case then it could be said that at a small enough scale, time itself gives way to uncertainty and variability of structure. Universal simultaneity imposes a homogeneous frame of time over the entire universe--this in a sense is a grand isotrope structure. Another way of stating this is that when time reaches an infinitely fast rate (upon an infinitely small scale) then there occurs a time-blur in which simultaneity becomes fragmented and broken apart and the reality at this super small scale occurs in a non-synchronous manner. Universal simultaneity is possible at an infinitely large scale, because upon this scale clocks would be infinitely slow, and hence there would be no time per se. The synchronization of time on a very large scale may be related to the stratification and integration of reality upon multiple levels. At the same levels, reality everywhere changes at the same rates. We may argue therefore that universal simultaneity is an extension of the cosmological principle to embrace both stratification and periodic phenomena that are fundamental to the structure and dynamics of physical reality. Simultaneity of event process occurs because the universe is everywhere the same in structure.

It must follow that in a calculus of time, the fundamental error and variability of structure upon a very small scale would average out to a set rate that, in increasingly large contexts, becomes relatively uniform. It may be this that confers to space time its basic sense of flexibility and dynamic structure, its capacity to alternate, and it may be this that allows the universe to open out and interconnect with other alternative meta-state systems that possibly follow a different temporal trajectory than our own.

It follows as well that increasing density of space-time would increase the gravitational attraction in this region, or the flow of space-time into this region, by increasing the replacement amount. In dense structures, the interstitial pockets would be fewer, smaller and possibly further between. We would expect a greater number of string structures emanating from such densities.

All periodic phenomena come about in physical reality as the result of regular processes of spin resonance amplification and reverberation of string structures. The propagation of light energy must be construed in terms not of a transmission of a discrete bundle or particle containing energy, but as a movement in a specific direction of a wave that affects the field structure of space-time in a discrete manner. Ultimately it makes little difference whether we view this as a particle or a quantized wave-phenomena, as the consequences are the same in either case. It forces us to see the propagation of light in empty space-time as a phenomena more of communication of physical information than as a form of transmission of energy. We can look at is as a kind of quantum teleportation of the information of the structure of light that allows it to be recreated and to achieve consequences at its final destination. It may be that no actual energy is carried by such light, just the information for instantaneously creating this specific energy when and if ti becomes intercepted at the other end of the line it draws through space-time. If gaps or pores exist in the fundamental structure of space time, these must be regarded as temporary absences of field structure rather than as permanent presences of nothing. It is evident that light energy and gravitational energy must be capable of "jumping" across these holes in a instantaneous sense and achieving affective transmission. It follows that fundamental structure of space-time would be discontinuous and intermittent in occurrence. Perhaps energy is capable of jumping across the holes in space-time because it has no where else to go, and it must go somewhere.

*****

We must consider the possibility of space-time turbulence as a normal aspect of the dynamics of physical reality. I would define turbulence as the inherent motions and fluctuations of any system that is relatively underdetermined and variable in its structural relations. Turbulence suggests fluid like dynamics and fluid properties. We can see this turbulence occurring at different levels of natural size stratification, albeit with different effects at each level of its occurrence. Space-time can be said to be inherently, or spontaneously, turbulent. This turbulence is perhaps unique to itself and is not exactly analogous to the turbulence of a liquid or a gas. It appears to have a malleable, plastic, almost stretchable and bendable structure, through which something flows in a gravitational manner. The flow is determined by this structure, but the flow is not a part of its structure in one sense, and seems to be intrinsic to the structure in another sense. Thus, it has its own intrinsic structure, unlike the flow of a liquid or a gas that fills a volume defined by the shape of the vessel that contains it. On one hand it appears fluid dynamic and on the other it appears to have elastic but solid-like properties that confer upon it a predictable integrity in four dimensions.

According to the theory of universal relativity, all motions that we understand in physical reality are a consequence or a part of this flow structure of space-time. The physical properties that we associate with motion are those that are the direct and immediate result of the structure of space-time upon that motion. All energy is immanent from and intrinsic to the potential energy that is contained within this structure of space-time. Space-time, though it appears as an empty and complete transparent vacuum, may harbor an infinite amount of potential energy, and its flow dynamics are perhaps only one form of expression of this energy. We expect that in any fundamental energy equation, no matter what the pathway of conversion, that there will be complete conservation and hence a net balance of energy at all times. This represents a fundamental sense of universal equilibrium that physical reality always appears to obey.

1. Energy is neither made nor destroyed, but only converted from one form to another.

2. Energy may be lost from any finite system, but this energy is never lost from the total meta-state system of the universe, which represents a universal energy sink. In other words, as a corollary to my fifth law of thermodynamics, we can never have a perfectly closed finite energy system.

3. Any and every energy transaction entails a net balance of energy, in any form, on both sides of the equation.

4. Complex intermediate transition, transformation and equilibrium states do occur that appear locally imbalanced.

5. These transition states constitute the basis for working organizational systems in the universe at all levels upon which these natural systems are defined.

6. All such working systems are by definition limited or finite systems.

We account for this turbulence on the basis of the lack of a rigid or over-determined structure of space-time in a fundamental sense. The underdetermined structure of space-time guarantees that it achieves a certain fluidity and plasticity of structural variation that translates itself into motion, force and the various state-expressions of energy at various levels in the spectrum of its articulation. This turbulence may be seen therefore as a form of self-organizational chaos that affects the epi-genetic patterning of space-time in terms of its structural dimensions. This pattern of complex change is intrinsically related to the temporal dimensionally of the physical structure of reality. We refer to it as periodic or cyclical patterning as it exhibits a pattern of recursion or reiteration of basic functions the large scale results of which are the universe as we understand this to exist in the large and the long run. We can understand this function as a kind of fundamental Mandelbrot set the recursion of which produces the universe. We can imagine an original singularity that had the capacity for self-replication in an unlimited sea of physical "essence" and hence for exponential expansion to infinite size and numbers. This self-replicatory structure would lead to further combinations at larger and larger sizes that would result in formation of systems with emergent properties at different levels. In a sense, biological systems are a consequence of this patterning under special circumstances, and hence we can understand the continuity of pattern between living and non-living systems to the extent that both are chaotically, stochastically patterned in a self-organizational manner.

The original formation of the universe would have resembled a kind of chain reaction--albeit a chain reaction that did not proceed suddenly but may have lapsed over what might be equivalent to trillions of years of our own time. This chain reaction would have resulted in the crystallization and propagation of basic structural entities.

We would experience this turbulence in the form of fluctuations and variations in the patterning of motion, temporal event structures, gravitational phenomena and in terms of fundamental indeterminancy that we associate with physical properties or event structures.

We say the largest structure of the universe as a meta-state system is out of time. It would be out of time--it has no time and as a whole it does not change. We say as well that the smallest structure races forward at an infinite rate of time, or alternatively, in an instantaneous sense, is infinitely fast in its expression of velocity of motion. Between these two extremes, the cosmographical and fundamental horizons, there is a continuum of intermediate sizes in which there seems to be a trade-off consistently between increasing scale and decreasing speed of event interval. We infer therefore at all levels a form of instantaneous or simultaneous integration of structure of physical reality. We assume from a logical and natural extension of the cosmological principle that this is universally true, even if we cannot directly observe it or comprehend it to be so.

If we take turbulence at one level and translate it to another level, this sense of turbulence either "averages" out or becomes engulfing to the point that in a relative sense it can be discounted. What is turbulent at one level may appear smooth and non-turbulent at some other level. We may see this as the dynamic relativity of alternative gravitational frames of reference that affect the regional structures and texture of reality upon different levels.

If space-time is continuously turbulent at all levels and in all areas, then we can expect that the turbulence we experience at one level is inconsequential to the turbulence we would experience upon other levels.

The turbulence in the larger sense can be said to be isotrope and therefore in accordance to the cosmological principle. It is this turbulence that originally gave rise to primordial matter, in theory at least in the form of pristine hydrogen, and that results in the energy dynamics that occur in the complex systems we are capable of observing today in galaxies and solar systems. When we look out across the universe, observationally we see patterns of motion that appear extremely stable and if retrograde at all, only upon a level that is almost imperceptible by our instruments. Thus the orbits of planets and the movement of stars in our night-time heavens appear better than clockwork, with pathways that are predictable centuries hence. If we accord turbulence to the observational scale of the universe that we can see through our telescopes, then we must try to understand this turbulence on a scale of time that is so extended and vast that it makes our own earth history seem like a few seconds in the life-time of a person. Turbulence would be seen in the fluctuation of gravitational fields and in the occassional collision of galaxies. It would be seen in meteor showers and the collision of comets and asteroids. Its record would be left on the pock-marked faces of the moon and other planets. It would be seen in explosive events at the termination of star-cycles and in the gravitational interactions between proximate bodies. Turbulence at this scale must be plotted over vast distances of thousands and millions of light-years. At the other end of the extreme we would notice turbulence of the fundamental structure of space-time, far smaller in scale than that of the atom and its subatomic particles, but affecting these entities in a consistent and predictable manner. We can find turbulence at either end of the observational continuum, but we find evidence of turbulence at the intermediate range more difficult to identify. It is probably not because it is not there, but because it remains relatively invisible to us and to our naked eye. We find turbulence closer to home in the form of geophysical phenomena--volcanoes, earthquakes, storm systems. These forms of turbulence may seem to have little directly to do with the turbulence of gravity and space-time, but indirectly they are a function of the latter influences, just as is the inherent turbulence of the sun's spots and its solar flares.

In attempting to understand the basic structure of reality, we must adopt a spring theory of space-time to see that different shapes of the essential structure would yield different synergistic properties. A spring elongated is like a string that is stretched out and may bend and twist but remains in its network of other strings. A spring in a helical configuration is like a coil that turns in a preferred direction and hence suggests movement and motion in that direction, or velocity. This helical spring has two possible transitional states--in divergent or convergent saddle shape. A spring that is squashed to a single set of points is one that becomes like a small particle with its on convergent sense of stability. It becomes like an electron or a proton. These different configurations result in altogether different physical states:

1. String structure--space-time or spime-network

2. Spring structure--energy

3. Closed Coil-loop structure--particulate entities (i.e., elementary particles)

Furthermore these alternate structures of the same essential entity are but variations of shape that may merge together at times. Whatever shape of the structure we would have, they would all be part of the same fundamental constituent "essence" which essence I've referred to as the zeroth essence. We may see this zeroth essence simultaneously in alternate states, as a field, as a particulate entity or as a form of quantized energy. In theory I've suggested that zeroth essence is an event-entity that has certain minimal properties such as spin and direction, and it may alternate between two or more (mul-tuple) basic states and in so doing come to compose in a systematic manner an array of "nth-particulates" that would act like chain links or spinning tops that would interconnect into larger spring, string or coil structures. We would hypothesize furthermore that if holes occur in the universe, they may occur at this zeroth-level such that the zeroth event entity is one of a continuous reiteration or "blinking" presence/absence.

As we reduce the physical structure of reality down further and further, we may eventually reach a point at which the amount of "absence" exceeds the amount of "presence" and the presence itself may be more a quantum phenomenon following Einstein-Bose probabilities than anything that is has more tangible substance. When we reach this level, what I call the zeroth level of singularity, it is perhaps better to refer to self-consistent unified field structures than of fundamental event-entities. Within such a field structure, the difference between "absence" and "presence" might be more of a matter of degree and variation than anything else.

From this standpoint, energies like light or gravitation are essential alternate structures that are intrinsic to the turbulence and systematic alternation of the fundamental structure of space-time. They would be spontaneously generated from the structure of space-time itself without requiring any additional conditions. This is another way of asserting a fifth law of thermodynamics that connects the thermodynamic paradigm to a gravitational dynamic paradigm. There can be no energy vacuum except at the zeroth point of absolute zero-rest, which is unobtainable in the physical universe except perhaps for our hypothetical holes upon a fundamental level. From this, the formation of matter based upon the electron-positron theory is an inevitable stochastic consequence of time.

Large-scale turbulence may not have existed in the earlier stages of the universe, but arose only as the consequence of the increasing stockpiling and production of mass and the organization of larger and larger gravitational systems. On the other hand, enough large scale turbulence must have always existed to permit the occassional production of white-source structures that would generate the light needed in intensities to produce prodigous quantities of pristine hydrogen.

It is possible that during these earlier stages the average stellar system was much smaller in size than is common today, and that these earlier systems were much longer lived than their successor systems of subsequent generations. Very large star systems at an early point were probably rarer and more infrequent, and did not coalesce in large numbers until sufficient quantities of hydrogen-helium clouds were produced in the universe.

Galaxies would have formed around very large hydrogen-helium cloud formations, that in turn would have formed around stable white-sources in the universe. The early galaxies, first generation galaxies, would have been composed of smaller, longer lived stars and would have slowly grown over time. Second generation galaxies would be entities that would have not a white source at its center, but a black-hole at its center. This galaxy would not be increasing or growing in size, but essentially shrinking in size. A second generation galaxy may in fact be only the final stages of a life-trajectory of a galaxy, that may extend through time to the very earliest phhases of the universe--what we would call the first generation white-source galaxy would represent the earliest phases of the galaxy undergoing its formation. If this is the case, then we must consider the possibility of the replacement at the center of a white-source by a black hole, or even possibly the eventual evolution of a white source into a gigantic star and then its own collapse into a black hole structure. We would expect for instance that larger and shorter lived star systems would tend to form near the centers of galaxies and in the heart of hydrogen-helium cloud formations near white-sources, than at the perimeter of these cosmic scale structures. We would expect these to be the candidates for blackhole formation and even possibly coalescence into a central gravitational feature in the universe.

There is one curious pattern in the universe--the tendency for astronomical systems that are gravitationally unified to sort themselves out into stable trajectories along a central plane that can be considered the plane of principle gravitational unification, and this plane appears to be perpendicular to an axis of spin rotation of the central unifying object, or dominant gravitational source, from which poles there frequently appears to be ejecta or other event structures. We might explain this principle gravitational plane as the consequence of a quadropole structure of the central gravitating body that is spining on its axis, producing the strongest gravitational fields consistently around its equator and the weakest fields focally at its poles.

 

 


Blanket Copyright, Hugh M. Lewis, 2005. Use of this text governed by fair use policy--permission to make copies of this text is granted for purposes of research and non-profit instruction only.

Last Updated: 03/17/05