1 Several hypothetical inferences can be drawn from this model of kinship. First, sexual stratification which is most salient and strongest in the first generation of the male ego's collaterals may be evidence of it being a more basic and fundamental principle than that of age stratification, which may have occurred subsequently. Secondly, at the first and second generations ascending, it is evident that there is strong, almost perfect, affinal symmetry in the system, a remarkable symmetry of "complementary affinity" which is only offset by the very vertical nature of the patrilineal ascent. Third, it is quite easy to see how this model can be simply modified, even reversed in a sense, in cases in which the husband goes to reside with the wife's family. Fourth, it is possible that the relationships which are fixed by definition within the nexus of patrilineal relationships can be easily extended out in "diluted" fashion to encompass ever wider spheres of co-laterality and hierarchy that is especially defined on lineal or clan terms of common surname.
2It has served to harness in relations of dependency, and to control and protect, the productive and reproductive capacities and powers of women in service of men and their male dominated organization. It would be naive to assume that reproductive access is the only form of "cultural capital" which women represent--as their labor, domestic productivity and resourcefulness are clear and significant. It would be wrong to consider this function as a consequence of the need to regulate the exchange and exchange value of women, as this regulation may be as much a consequence as a cause of such a system.
It is in the deeper history of Chinese society that we can find possible answers to the origins of this system (Stover 1974)--in the perennial threat of war and famine in a rural China, in the need for the rapid and effective mobilization of males for defense, and in the need to organize productive domestic/extra-domestic labor in an effective and profitable manner. We may now only speculate as to the events which led to this system in the first place, or as to the possible evolutionary implications of such a system.
3People were asked a set of "frames" such as "sons should take care of daughters," "sons should take care of fathers", "sons should take care of mothers", each of which they were asked to evaluate on a scale of 1 to 3, with 0 being an uncertain response. These frames covered the entire range of possible relationships between the different categories of persons (sons, fathers, mothers, daughters, also aunts, uncles, wives, husbands, grandparents, godparents). Needless to say the task is time consuming to administer. Many frames appeared to be ambiguous and difficult to translate, such as "sons should question (or be served before) mothers."
Grids were also done on women's occupations (n=21); men's occupations (n=12); professions (n=11); cars (n=11); 31 national groupings (n=5), based on varying sets of dimensions. From each of these grids, it is possible to construct different rule paradigms based upon the elicited dimensions and similar to the one proposed for the familial model. In regard to nationalities, Malaysians and Americans are equally highly rated across the five elicited dimensions, followed by Chinese and Australians.
4Percentages were used because of variability of sample sizes. Agreement scores were used because they expressed the greatest degree of cultural sharing, and because sharing was strong, though uneven in most categories, consensus theory predicts the validity of small samples such as were used, if we can presume a high level of competence in the implicit knowledge of basic relationships presumed in the scoring dimensions.
5This table can be interpreted such that if a positive correlation is high, such as between obedience and serving food, in one relationship, then the same dimension will tend to be rated highly in the other relationship. Where there is a strong negative correlation, such as between who gives money to whom and who punishes or scolds, if one relationship is rated high in one category, it will tend to be rated low in the other.
6A high positive correlation can be interpreted to mean a very close similarity of agreement between two relational categories in terms of the agreement across all ten categories. A high negative correlation can be interpreted to mean the reverse--that when a dimension that is high in one relationship will tend to be low in the other relationship.
7The pattern of agreement shown above is different from the pattern of disagreement, a pattern of uncertainty, a pattern of indifference and a pattern of ambivalence that can be inferred from the scores in the scores. The relative degree of competence might also be calculated from these scores, by which an estimate of the significance of the values can be derived.
8It is important to note that there is asymmetry between agreement and disagreement, as well as patterns of ambivalence and of uncertainty or indifference.
9To some extent, this appears to be the case, though unpredicted dissimilarities emerged as well. The task items were selected and reworded on the basis of their interpretability into Hokkien--if they did not seem to make sense in Hokkien to Hokkien people, then they were dropped from the inventory.
10Because the questions emerged in the course of the fieldwork following leads as to things that might be important to ask, they might be seen as less inherently biased in the cultural sense than the adoption of questions directly from such inventories designed in the U.S. and at least implicitly for an American target population. Problems of translation to Hokkien were considerable, and many initial questions had to be left out because of the seeming irrelevance or else the difficulty of framing the question in a manner that would make any sense in Hokkien.
11Nearly unanimous positive responses to these questions in all sub-samples must be interpreted as representing fairly uniform, and to some extent, core overseas Chinese cultural values.
12"Older children should definitely take care of their younger siblings, but sometimes they do and sometimes they don't." "It is Chinese tradition. Children should definitely not interrupt while adults are talking." "They have ears but no mouths." "Showing too much affection to a child will spoil it, with a friend or with a child." "You can love but you cannot show it because in the long run you will spoil the child." "Children do not know anything. You shouldn't beat them for spilling food. You must teach them, scold them, tell them. Scold first, beat if the child gets stubborn." "Accidents can happen, must explain." "If parents love they won't beat, otherwise they will beat. You must threaten or scold them."
13"If a dog bites people it should be chained up, but if you chain a dog it will bite you when you take it off the chain." "If you chain a dog for the whole day it will run wild, just like persons or children." "Chaining a dog makes it fierce, it goes mad." "If a dog doesn't listen you must also beat it." "Sometimes it must be beat, but only if it has done something bad or mean." "Sometimes must beat, sometimes must love." "If you beat it, it will bite you." "Must train it from young, teach it, scold, check or explain." "I don't beat, I only scold. You have to teach it like a child, if it is wrong you can beat it, but not always."
14"A woman who dresses too daringly is shameful. In olden days they closed themselves up, but now it depends on situation." "They want face. It depends on the fashion." "I don't like to see these things." "If a woman is attractive she does not have to dress too daringly, only unattractive women dress too daringly." "If a woman is asking for trouble, she can also wear decent clothes and trouble still will come." "Nowadays in the modern world it doesn't matter." "Depends if it's East or West."
"Women should not drink." "A woman should not sit in a coffee shop by herself. She can drink at home." "It is only all right if just for coffee." "So many women and girls are working now it doesn't apply anymore. This rule is 40 years old." "If it is an older woman it is all right. But she must be accompanied by her parents or other women. If not people will say she is a bar girl." "It is nothing just to eat. Some do for snacks and coffee. It depends on the Coffee shop environment, who will know the kind of men there." "The modern world is different."
"If the mothers-in-law are right, daughters-in-law must listen to them." "Daughters-in-law must have filial piety. Chinese law--must always listen to mother in law wishes even if she is wrong." "The mother-in-law is like your mother. Only young women should do it." "Nowadays its different. They do not listen. Daughters-in-law control their mother's-in-law, sometimes they fight them and even beat them." "Some mothers-in-law are mean. If she is right she should be listened to." "Now they talk facts." "Nowadays it depends."
15"It is O.K. for the daughter of a hawker to marry the son of a banker, if they are in love with each other." "If she is pretty and agreeable. It is their wish. There is no line between rich and poor." "If both are willing." "It is up to the parent's wishes." "If they love each other and their parents object they may commit suicide." "Some parent's seek rich in-laws, some prefer working class." "Some say it is not equal, it is too high for the girl."
"If the daughter of a doctor and a construction worker love each other, then it is all right to get married." "If they are both willing it is up to them, only I'm afraid the parents will object." "If there are no objections, usually the rich parent's will object." "They are not equal at all, not matched." "It depends on if they love each other. Usually the rich marry the rich, but not always."
16"It is certain that a child should wipe up an invalid parent's excrement." "Usually people are hired to do it, but a child should do it." "It is a must. If children don't do it, who will." "They raised us from young, but if the children are far from home?" "Daughters-in-law should do it."
17"A child can scold their parents if their parents are wrong." "Nowadays they are bold, they can answer back." "Parents must explain to them and teach them." "Now children curse back." "Some also say 'Fuck mother.'" "I scold my mother when she gets me angry. I have done it too." "Parents hope children won't do it." "They must use the cane."
18"It is not wrong for a woman to touch a man in public, but only if it is holding hands." "Only if they are married." "It is up to the woman. Just a little pat is O.K." "If holding hands but not glaringly holding each other." "If they do, you must beat them." "If friends all right." "Nowadays it happens, but not right if in public." "It is not nice to see but nowadays it is quite common." "It is so 'gili' (sickening) only to see."
19"Some fathers dare not clean their daughter's bottom." "It is a woman's job." "Usually the mother does it." "Men will do it, but only when the mother is busy." "The mother should wash the babies bottom." "They ask the wife to do it." "It is not good. According to Chinese, men do not do it."
"We wash our clothes by machine now, so men can wash women's clothes, but not by hand, and never hang them out. Older people will scold." "But if the wife is sick we can wash only the wife's clothes." "If my wife works it's up to me." "Only when the wife is busy." "Ask wife, some can and cannot, some do and some don't." "For Chinese, no. It is women's work, men work outside." "My brother washes my clothes for me."
"It is not a husband's duty to feed an infant in the middle of the night if he is working." "Some men share in this work." "They have a share in the baby." "Some will help and some say they are going to work the next day." "Chinese fathers love their children and will do it." "Some will do it, but Chinese don't." "Some ask their wives to do it."
20"It is not right for a woman to pursue a professional career even if it means postponing marriage and a family." "It is a big wrong--women must have a family to be complete." "She should marry and have a family. Every woman should have a family. Parents cannot take care of her forever." "If there is no family, there is no reason for life." "Better to marry, you have your husband to take care of you." "Must have a family, when you get older you will yearn for family and children." "If picky, life will pass you buy." "Some may be ugly or too choosy." "Some are scared they may find a bad husband." "Some think getting married to the wrong person is horrible." "If you work and earn money but don't have anyone to leave it to, then the government will take it all." "Yes it happens, a lot of single women nowadays."
21This sample is comparable to another non-overlapping sample of an earlier version of the same task (n=15, 6 men and 9 women). In this sample, highest agreement was for the question "A child must not be allowed to see its parents naked" and "It is O.K. for an unmarried man over 40 to live with his parents" (100% each); followed by "It is O.K. for a father to clean his infant child's bottom," "It is important for a child to work for and support the parents" and "It is right for a woman to leave her husband if he regularly mistreats her" (93.33% each); followed by "A man should share in the feeding of his baby," (8.6.67%); "It is O.K. for a child to wipe an invalid parent's excrement" and "Women can behave like tomboys and men can behave like women" (73.33% each); "It is best if a child follows its parents choices in marriage" and "It is important for a son to continue his parent's religion" and "It is O.K. if a single unmarried women pursues a professional career even if it means indefinitely postponing marriage and having a family" (66.67% each).
The least agreement across this sample was "It is all right for a woman to get drunk sometimes" (6.7%); followed by "It is best if a child follows its parent's choices in marriage" (13.3%); "A son or daughter can scold his or her parents," and "It is all right if a woman touches a man in public" (20% each); "It is O.K. for the daughter of a hawker to marry the son of a banker" (33.33%); "It is O.K. for an unmarried woman to sleep with a man" (40%); "It is good for husbands to go out to nightclubs on weekends without their wives," "A man should share in the feeding of the baby at night", and "It is O.K. if a man gets drunk occasionally" (46.67%). The average score for this sub-sample was 11.066.
22"Wealthy people are definitely more attractive than poor people--they use more makeup and have more time for relaxation." "Wealthy people can afford facials and expensive makeup." "They can afford all the expensive cosmetics to cover themselves, poor people just work and do not take care of themselves." "Rich people are afraid of the sun and eat good." "Some rich people have ugly daughters, it's all in the makeup." "Some rich people are also ugly, and attractive people usually have no money."
23"All policemen always take bribes." "Most usually take bribes, 9 out of 10." "Some yes, some no. Its 50/50." "They do not have enough to feed their families. Even a little money is O.K., they have little." "But not from me."
"After your purse has been snatched, the police will wait for someone to return the identification card." "They say they will help?" "By law you have to report, you just report the loss to cover yourself for your license and identity card, but you must find it yourself." "It is hard to find back. The bag will never be recovered." "They will assist you but it takes a long time to find it." "Only 50% will help you."
"Police help the rich more than the poor because they want the rich man's money." "They also protect the rich." "They 'jack' only the rich." "The rich are afraid of bad people, bad people are afraid of the government, the government is afraid of rich people." "Rich people know the rules, poor people do not." "Rich people give them more 'kopi' (coffee) money." "They also want rich people to pay them pocket money." "Not all police but usually that is the case."
24For women's responses: "if the wife is bad, it is O.K. for the husband to have another"; "Men can have more than one wife only if they have the money"; "Two or three (wives) are also all right, but it is better to have only one"; "The wives will fight among themselves, so cannot"; "What can you do? Husbands find ways and means to get another wife;" "Wives cannot stop men, they hide it from their wives."
For the men's responses: "only if men have money can they have more than one wife"; "Some men also have friends on the side"; "If one has money, why not"; "Two wives are enough"; "If the first one dies, sometimes men will take another"; "Two or three wives also never mind"; "As long as there is money, it is O.K., but by law only one"; "Personally, I do not want more than one wife."
25"If you play the lottery a long time, you are bound to win." "Everyone hopes like that." "Sometimes only. Sometimes will lose all, even if you win you will not get all the money back." "If it was that way, I would not be standing here working." "If you are lucky you get big money, if not then only small money." "It depends on your luck, sometimes if you gamble till you die you will not get anything." "Usually you strike little, only 'small luck.'" "I have never stricken it rich." "Some people play many times and never strike it rich."
26Qualifications to the answers, as in "People are controlled by fate" indicate that either people were not sure or believed that our fate was up to ourselves. Success in life depends not so much on the good will of the Gods but upon "shear hard work". Human misfortune is caused as much "by our carelessness" as it is by the Gods. Good fortune in this life depends not so much on the happiness of the ancestors but upon "luck" or Feng Shui. Happiness is not necessarily measured by money, "the best is average person, do not need that much money." Many people were reluctant to answer or unsure whether a person will suffer misfortune if spirits aren't placated. For many, money is "number one" and "without money things cannot be done." People "dare not say" if one's fate in life determines a person's state after death. Children are both good and bad so "we must teach them." The "Gods blesses everybody." Each person is for him or her self in the world, so we must work hard. No one will know if one's place in heaven is influenced by one's fortune on earth. One's ancestors in heaven are influenced by the place of their burial. Money may not be the sign of one's fate in heaven, we "cannot say whether we can go to heaven or not." If a child does not obey its parent's even if they are wrong, then the child "will get beaten." Success is not so much a sign of respect for one's ancestors as it is a matter of fate.
27The problem with these types of tasks was the very low response rate and very strong resistance in their completion. There appeared to be a number of difficulties in their design and administration--foremost perhaps was the difficulty of translation from English into Hokkien, which perhaps brings up a need to reassess the question of linguistic relativity functioning at different syntactic and semantic levels.
Some of these tasks also clearly explored the boundaries of their worldview in a manner that they frequently found threatening. There was also a sense that statements they could make may be linked to their own names and identities with perhaps unknown consequences. This made the use of a tape recorder for several of the tasks designed to elicit spontaneous, tip-of-the-tongue oral responses, virtually impossible to use with anyone but less than a handful of people. On several occasions attempting to encourage completion of these relatively simple tasks (from an American's point of view) led to the characteristic "ingenuine" response that was hiding the truth and which was wasting everyone's time, and even at a point to a closure of a small group of people of the Jetty who had previously been quite open to being interviewed.
28Adapted from the sentence completion task accompanying the symbolic profile, Fry 1976. Note that percentages are of the total sample, and those responses without percentages are typically of low agreement (one or two people) and are meant to typify the range of response.
29Other salient associations are: "some beautiful, some not," cheap, dirty, not good, humorous, "whatever they do can't be helped because of their poor circumstances," fair complexion, good, daring, decent, discriminated against, friendly, average, different, more free. The concepts of darkness, "like Malay," "prostitute," dirty, and sexy, were closely related, while "fair" and "same like Chinese" were also closely associated. "They follow everyone, go with all men, cannot be trusted. If marry a Thai prostitute she will later open the back door and find other men." On other hand, "A friend is married to an ex-Thai prostitute and they have two children. She is a good and decent woman." About 17.7 % said they didn't know any Thai people and 7.25% said they had never been to Thailand.
30Other salient associations were peaceful, scenery, good and bad, rights or fairness, developed or modern, prosperous, different from Malaysia, proud, better than Malaysia, superior in attitude or "talk down" to others. There were close associations between concepts of strictness, goodness, cleanliness and beauty. Overall, attitudes about Singapore were positive, such as "Good, like when the Sinaporean Government flogged the American boy for vandalism." About 15.3% had never been to Singapore, and 11.29% didn't know or had forgotten what it was like.
31Other associations are: fast working, better than others, the war, modern, good, fat, same as Chinese, cruel, developing. Fairness, shortness, smartness and hardworking are associated. About 16.12% didn't know and 5.6% had never seen any Japanese before. "Men always knock against women, just bow their head and knock against them. They came in a boat and took women away." "Japs and Koreans are '584.'(over-sexed)." At night they pass you and touch you on the hand and piss in the water. People here beat them worse when they are drunk. Very gili." An older women related her war experiences as a young 16 year old girl. "When younger Japanese in wrong. It was very difficult. They killed a lot of people, raped a lot of girls. Took them up to the hills out of the city and beat them up. People ran and hid in the caves. Could hear their boots stomping. They gang raped them until they couldn't walk."
32Other salient associations are: "best," "lose," "depends," "average," "break down," "Proton" (national car of Malaysia), convenience, affordable, progress or development, in Japanese, and English. About 9.67% didn't know.
33Other salient categories are: "dangerous/frightening" (9.67%), "increasing" (9.67%), as well as "heard but never seen," "mostly Overseas," Thailand, newspapers, contagious, incurable, "no problem in Malaysia," "government control," "deserve it," "bad," "government quarantine." About 88.7% didn't know, and there was a sense that this lack of understanding was serious and genuine. A dialogue with some children of the Jetty reveals their lack of awareness of the disease "Due to smoking, drugs also have. If you sit close to a person who also has it give it to you." "No, girl to girl or boy to boy." "No, go out with strangers, they put drug into something and let us eat it and get it." "Didn't learn about it in school. On TV, young man got it with a prostitute." "No, TV shows a commercial with drug addict without drugs, climbing up the steps, then a skeleton."
34The absence of any noticeable affect was probably due in part to the contexts of the administration of the tasks, as well as to the "hiding" of emotions on the part of subjects. Chinese culture is noteworthy for the premium placed upon social constraint and the hiding of certain kinds of strong emotion, especially of love, sentimentality, anger or aggression.